Title

Goal Orientations and Performance: Differential Relationships Across Levels of Analysis and as a Function of Task Demands

Document Type

Article

Publication Date

5-2009

Publication Source

Journal of Applied Psychology

Abstract

Goal orientation and self-regulation theories were integrated to develop a multilevel framework aimed at addressing controversies regarding the magnitude and direction of goal orientation effects on performance. In Study 1, goal orientations were measured repeatedly whilst individuals performed an air traffic control task. In Study 2, goal orientations and exam performance were measured across 3 time points while undergraduates completed a course. Mastery-approach orientation was positively related to performance at the intraindividual level, but not at the interindividual level, and its effect was not moderated by task demands. Performance-approach positively predicted performance at the interindividual level, and at the intraindividual level, the direction of its effect switched as a function of task demands. Performance-avoid negatively predicted performance at the interindividual level but did not emerge as an intraindividual predictor. Mastery-avoid did not relate to performance at either level of analysis. This consistent pattern across 2 studies suggests that levels of analysis and task demands can determine the magnitude and direction of goal orientation effects on performance and highlights avenues for theory development.

Inclusive pages

710-726

ISBN/ISSN

1939-1854 (Electronic); 0021-9010 (Print)

Volume

94

Issue

3

Peer Reviewed

yes

Keywords

goal orientation, performance, intraindividual & interindividual levels of analysis, task complexity, task practice, mastery-approach orientation, self-regulation