Malle R. Schilling and Nathan D. Volk
Many researchers use mathematical models to understand and predict the behavior of biological systems. In this work we consider a mathematical model for diabetes mellitus presented by Hussain and Zadeng to study a metabolic disease for the regulation of glucose in the body by pancreatic insulin. The mathematical models consists of two ordinary differential equations for glucose concentration and insulin concentration. In particular, this study attempts to numerically solve the model using the Runge-Kutta methods of order 2 and 4. We will also perform a qualitative analysis on the behavior of the system
A Portfolio Weighting Strategy For a Portfolio of 9 Large Cap Healthcare Stocks: The Case for Capture Ratios, 2010 - 2015
Mitchell V. Schleyer
The Capital Asset Pricing Model (CAPM) indicates that individual stocks are systematically influenced by overall price movements in the market. One way of measuring these systematic movements is through capture ratios. In this study I utilize upside/downside capture ratios to develop portfolio weights for 9 large cap Health Care stocks which make up the largest overall weight in the Health Care Sector XLV. I test the following hypotheses: (1) The upside/downside capture ratio weighted portfolio outperforms the market (S&P 500), (2) the upside/downside capture ratio weighted portfolio outperforms XLV. (3) The performance of the upside/downside capture ratio weighted healthcare portfolio compares favorably to other weighting strategies.
Avoiding the Guillotine: The Need for Balance and Purpose in Determining Fundamental Rights under the Fourteenth Amendment
Timothy A. Campbell
This paper argues the need for a balanced approach between traditionalism (including history) and rationalism to determine fundamental rights under the Fourteenth Amendment of the U.S. Constitution. The issue of how to determine fundamental rights has intrigued the Supreme Court of the United States since 1798. The Supreme Court has desired an “objective” approach to determine what rights are “fundamental.” However, the Supreme Court has had difficulty finding an objective approach. This is because, as E.O. Wilson and Joshua Greene observed, rights are naturally subjective creations of an individual’s values. Thus, any test to determine fundamental rights will be subjective rather than objective. The debate over how to determine fundamental rights is also shaped by the rationalist and traditionalist schools of thought. Rationalists argue that fundamental rights should be determined by objective reasons, rather than history. The latter, on the other hand, argue that history still has value, and is a required component of legal analysis. Both sides of the debate bring out valid points in favor of their claims. However, neither side alone can provide a solution to the debate. As a result, what is needed is a balanced test between rationalism and traditionalism. Specifically, the test examines four factors: specificity of the right, purpose of the right, legal precedent, and history. In order for a proposed right to be fundamental, the sum of the specificity and the purpose must be greater or equal to the sum of legal precedent and history.
Stacie S. Swanton
Introduction: It is reported that two of three American adults are classified as overweight or obese; and one in three of their offspring will become overweight or obese (Sun et al., 2012). Because parental obesity is a risk factor for childhood obesity, children can also be pre-exposed to risk factors for chronic diseases such as diabetes, hypertension, coronary artery and cardiovascular diseases. It has been well established that body composition is affected by many variables such as age, sex, race, in addition to the familial environment affects such as diet and exercise habits (Baumgartner et al., 1994). Previous research has shown a stronger maternal than paternal influence on BMI during infancy and early childhood (Magarey et al., 2013). The purpose of this research was to investigate the BMI associations between mother and offspring from birth to age 18 years. Methods: Participants were selected from the Fels Longitudinal Study, in which information regarding the study has been previously published in great detail (Roche et al., 1992). The current study sample includes 6,263 mother/child pairings (n=3,215 mother/son, n= 3,048 mother/daughter). Inclusion criteria required that mothers be a mean age of 35 ± 5 years, the children be aged from 0-18 years, and have height, weight, and body mass index (BMI) data present. BMI correlations between mothers and offspring were analyzed by Spearman correlations and standardized beta coefficients. Results: BMI correlations for the mother/son relationship became statistically significant (p≤ 0.05) around the boys age 5-6 years and continued through puberty and into early adulthood at age 18 years. The mother/daughter relationship became significant at age 1.5 years for girls and also continued through adolescence, puberty and early adulthood at age 18 years. Conclusions: The mother/daughter relationship was more strongly correlated than the mother/son relationship, and also became statistically significant at an earlier age than boys.
Johanna B. Lantz
This study examines the cross-cultural engagement between international and domestic undergraduate engineering students at a private, Midwestern university. It uncovers the situations in which international and domestic students are engaging and explores the components which help or hinder the cross-cultural interaction between these students. This study informs higher education professionals endeavoring to provide undergraduate engineering students a greater ability to function in a global world. Data was collected through the use of one-on-one interviews with current international and domestic undergraduate engineering students. The study revealed that while international and domestic engineering students are engaging, the frequency remains low and there continues to be barriers to this engagement which should be addressed.
Geordan L. Burress
Due to the fact that Chinese international students are such a significant population within American universities across the country, it is worth investigating how this population typically adjusts to living in the United States and what stresses or issues are unique to them. However, it is also important to investigate whether or not Chinese international students experience positive transformations within themselves as a result of the adjustment challenges that they are faced with. This qualitative inquiry examines these vital questions surrounding Chinese international student adjustment, in order to contribute to a more holistic understanding of the complex experiences of Chinese international students.
Foot functionality is integral to normal human locomotion. The most commonly assessed area of the human body studied during locomotion is the medial longitudinal arch and its deformation. The Arch Height Index Measurement System (AHIMS) is the most reliable tool to measure this arch. This system typically measures arch deformation in two baseline conditions, sitting and standing. The sitting condition is considered unweighted and approximately 10% of a person’s body weight. The standing condition is considered a loaded condition and represents 50% of body weight. The first aim of this study was to see if the baseline measurements traditionally taken with the AHIMS were valid assessments of their perspective body weight conditions. The second aim was to characterize the body weight load and arch deformation relationship. This study used the AHIMS to replicate loaded body weight conditions during gait, from 10-120% of a subject’s body weight. The subjects’ arch height was measured at twelve different body weight measurements of 10% increments (10-120%) using a real-time force data stream. The subjects were also loaded with a weighted vest that contained 20% of their body weight in order to aid them in achieving the higher loads of weight. Their arch deformation was recorded at all 12 conditions. The results will further the understanding of how the foot and specifically the arch change during ambulation.
Courtney E. Cady
The Federal Reserve, as a key element in its monetary policy, uses a 2% target inflation rate to determine if the federal funds rate needs to be increased. The purpose of this study is to evaluate long, intermediate, and short term trends in inflation to determine if the inflation policy objective has been reached. My inflation metric is Personal Consumption Expenditure (PCE) and the period of analysis is 2001-20015. I develop linear trend equations for both PCE and PCE less food and energy using the b coefficients from the regressions as a proxy for the PCE inflation rate. Out of sample forecasts are made for 2015 and the first couple of months in 2016.
Portfolio Weighting Strategies for a concentrated portfolio of Consumer Discretionary stocks: An Empirical Analysis, 2010-2015
Alexander Kubalski and Margaret E. Schutter
Recent interest by investment managers in Portfolio Weighting Strategies other than market capitalization has led to a rapid increase in fundamental based indexing. In their study I use the price dynamics of firms relative to the market (S&P 500) to weight a 10 stock portfolio of Consumer Discretionary firms. The weighting model is based on the capture ratio of the price changes for each stock compared to the S&P 500. In particular, an upside/downside capture ratio is developed for each stock based on a years worth of daily price changes. The following hypotheses are tested: 1) Firms with higher upside/downside capture ratios have higher expected returns. 2) The Consumer Discretionary portfolio weighted by upside/downside capture ratios out performs the market and the Consumer Discretionary Sector. 3) The upside/downside capture ratio performs well against other portfolio weighting strategies.
Portfolio Weights and Capture Ratio Analysis: A Look at Performance in the Consumers Staples Sector 2010-2015
Sam William Verrilli
Since the recession in 2008, the stock market has experienced periods of extreme volatility, with market moves of 200-400 points on almost a daily basis. One sector that should do well when market volatility is high and rising is consumer staples. In this study I use a dynamic pricing model to determine the portfolio weights for the 10 largest value weighted stocks in the consumer staples sector. The model relies on the upside/downside Capture Ratios (U/D) for each stock to calculate the portfolio weights and dollar investment in each stock. I test the following hypotheses: (1) Stocks with higher U/D ratios generate higher excess returns relative to the market, (2) The U/D weighted portfolio of consumer staples stocks outperforms the consumer staples sector (XLS), (3) The U/D weighted portfolio performance wise, compares favorably to other portfolio weighting strategies.
Renew Your Interest...So your best potential can come to Light! Examining the Effectiveness of Academic Renewal Course & Coaching (ARCC)
Shanon C. Davis
This research explores how the seven week academic intervention course, Academic Renewal Course and Coaching (ARCC) at the University of Dayton, affects student learning development and the parallel to decreasing attrition. The objective of this research was to extract the academic intervention practices and strategies that work best to increase academic performance amongst students who are academically and motivationally challenged. It also explains how and why student learning is affected when the appropriate conditions and resources aren’t identified and/or utilized by students. Academic intervention program assessment of ARCC is the all-encompassing purpose of this research. Through qualitative and quantitative data collection, the assessment revealed how effective ARCC is for students. Through personal interviews with former ARCC participants, the data showed how student’s sense of belonging, self-efficacy, and self-authorship are affected, along with transitional college adjustments. Students also shared that they gained additional knowledge about learning styles, learning environments, time management techniques, and note taking strategies. Post ARCC cumulative GPA reports revealed that students benefited from the course well into their collegiate career. This data, in combination with personal interviews revealed that students attributed their long term success to their ARCC involvement, as the course served as tool to get them back on track and fully acclimated. to college requirements.
Leslie M. Porter
The purpose for this project was to redesign a past General Chemistry Laboratory experiment with emphasis on student learning objectives in support of lecture material. The experiment was first introduced into the second semester CHM124L course in 1997 as “Preparation and Investigation of Salt Solutions”. For the Fall 2016 curriculum, the modified experiment will be conducted in the first semester General Chemistry course CHM123L as “Equilibrium of Salt Solutions”. This experiment was chosen for modification because the concept of equilibrium, especially when applied to pH of salt solutions, is one that many students find difficult to understand. Experiencing the concept in lab is one way for the students to increase their understanding. Our approach with the modification of the experiment was to step back and view the procedure from a first year student’s point of view. To take into account their laboratory skill set as a first semester student and to consider background material they would be exposed to by the time the experiment was conducted. The goal was to create an experiment that lead students through a thought provoking qualitative and quantitative analysis of the subject.
Turki Mohammed Alsuwian
A hypersonic aircraft vehicle is a highly complex nonlinear system, which includes uncertainties in the dynamics. This paper presents the design of robust nonlinear adaptive control for a hypersonic aircraft vehicle model. The complexity of the dynamic system is considered into the design structure of the control in order to address robustness issues. Design of a robust control system should decouple the longitudinal and lateral dynamics to handle the flight of hypersonic vehicle under certain specific conditions. In this paper, we only consider longitudinal dynamics, which are divided into aircraft speed subsystem and flight-path angle subsystem. A robust control design is implemented to provide asymptotic tracking regulation of aircraft speed and flight-path angle. In addition, it is employed in this study because the algorithm of control design exhibits better robustness properties. Based on the stability analysis, the adaptive control is derived for a Lyapunov function candidate of feedback closed-loop system. Simulation results of control design illustrate robustness and effectiveness.
Alison R. Cozad
State Initiatives are seen throughout every state, some more than others, but every election brings them. However, not every election is equal when it comes to turnout, depending on if it is a presidential or midterm year. Some are given more media attention, some are given minimal attention, if at all. The fundamental question is what role doe’s media play in turnout during elections and does any amount of roll-off occurs during presidential or governor’s elections? Does this poll-off or turnout have to do with media (or lack of) attention, or is there something more going on? Besides looking at the media aspect of covering ballot initiatives, there is also the idea that ballot language can have an impact on how voters vote. In this thesis, I hypothesize that the shorter word count, the more likely the initiative will get a “yes” vote; the better readability an initiative has, than the more likely it is to get a “yes” vote; and a greater amount of roll-off will occur in years with a presidential or governor’s race. By exploring these questions, we can see perhaps a bigger picture of how the media plays a role in the passage of state initiatives and also how what voters see on the ballot affects the passage of state initiatives.
Courtney E. Cady and David A. Christian
In recent years, an increasing portion of consumer expenditures on services is allocated to healthcare. The aging of the U.S. population, the Affordable Healthcare Act, and the rising per unit costs of hospital trips all have influenced this trend. In this study, we test the hypothesis that healthcare sector prices covary directly with consumer expenditures on healthcare services. Using regression analysis, we regress 5 Healthcare sector ETF's on Healthcare consumption expenditures. The ETF's are: (1) Healthcare Sector ETF (XLV), (2) Healthcare Equipment ETF (XHE), (3) Biotech ETF (XBI), (4) Pharmaceuticals ETF (XHP), and (5) Healthcare Services ETF (XHS). Quarterly data are used in the analysis and the time period is from 2004 - 2014. We expect b>0, t-statistics>2, and R2 is significantly different from zero.
A multi-pass distributed localized search technique to solve the problem of path planning of hyper-redundant manipulators for the shortest path in real-time in the presence of obstacles is proposed. The problem is approached from a control perspective as a shortest path Optimal control problem, where the configuration space is searched for path points that optimize a cost function. This method addresses the ‘’Curse of Dimensionality” of exhaustive search techniques via the multi-pass distributed local search and local minima of Greedy approach via a backtracking technique. Further, theoretical proof shows that the proposed technique converges to an optimal (if only one exists) or a suboptimal (if many exist) solution. The algorithm is implemented on a 9-DOF manipulator arm for various paths.
For the longitudinal dynamics of a fixed wing aircraft with rigid frame, a Proportional-Integral (PI) controller for controlling the forward velocity of the aircraft and a gain-scheduled Proportional-Integral-Differential (PID) like controller, with the forward velocity used as the scheduling variable, for controlling the flight path angle of the aircraft are designed. For a set of working PI gains, previously found through an experienced-based design, derivation and tuning of PID gains for a select number of forward velocities is computationally achieved through the use of a stable Adaptive Particle Swarm Optimization algorithm. Several performance measures, normalized so as to suppress differences in scale, are aggregated into the designed cost function.
David Jack Beebe
A number of studies conducted by students in the Davis Center for Portfolio Management suggest that the fundamental characteristics of stocks can be successfully used to generate portfolio alpha. In this study, several key valuation measures are used to develop portfolio weights for a concentrated portfolio of Consumer Staples stocks. They are, Price to Book, Price to Earnings, Price to Sales, and Price to Cash Flow. In addition, expected earnings growth one year ahead is also included in the weighting process. Two weighting strategies are used: (1) higher price to's get higher weights and (2) higher inverted weighted price to's get higher weights. The 10 stock portfolio performance is then compared to the performance of the DOW, The S&P 500, and the Consumer Staples SPDR ETF on a quarterly and yearly bases for 2014.
First-year students are at risk due to a university’s alcohol culture. This is creating a distorted reality of what college is about for many incoming students. First-year students assimilate into college with various external factors impacting their decisions; among these is whether or not to participate in high-risk alcohol consumption. Previous research focused on college environment, peers and the developmental stages of first-year students separately to identify how these factors impact a student’s decision to consume in high-risk ways. However, little research focused on the holistic impact of all three factors on the first-year student’s experience and alcohol consumption. This study demonstrated the effect of alcohol on first-year students and their overall experience by delving into their stories to understand their lived experiences. Eight interviews were completed, transcribed, and evaluated to develop a thematic understanding of their lived experience. By understanding each student’s story and their common experiences, interventions can be intentionally developed to assist students who are struggling or who might be at risk for issues throughout their college careers.
A Longitudinal, Sibling- Comparison Analysis of Associations Between Depression and Delinquency in Adolescence
Kathleen Elizabeth Mcguire
This study examines the prospective relationship between delinquency and depression in adolescence, as previous research suggests that they may be related. Our study was interested in testing the direction of the relationship between these factors, and whether they would be related when controlling for potential confounds using statistical covariates in one analysis and the comparison of siblings in a second analysis. Data from 11,495 offspring of a large nationally representative sample of mothers were used. Participants reported on delinquency and depression from the ages of 14 to 17. Covariates included race, gender, mother’s education, family income, birth order, maternal age at childbirth, and maternal history of delinquency, all of which were reported by participants’ mothers. As predicted, depression in ages 14-15 predicted future depression in ages 16-17, and delinquency in ages 14-15 predicted future delinquency in ages 16-17, suggesting continuity in both outcomes during adolescence. In addition, a significant positive association was found between depression at ages 14-15 and delinquency at ages 16-17 and between delinquency at ages 14-15 and depression at ages 16-17. Although boys had higher levels of delinquency than girls and girls had higher levels of depression than boys, no gender differences were found in the strength of the associations between delinquency and depression. Results were consistent between analyses controlling for measured covariates and sibling-comparisons. The findings suggest that depression and delinquency are mutually influential. This would suggest that addressing one outcome could serve to reduce or prevent the other.
A Match or a Mismatch: Comparing College Stated Learning Goals to Student Learning Goals and Perception of Educational Quality
Michelle D. Foster
An institution’s ability to meet students’ learning expectations influences student perceptions of educational quality and usefulness. Currently, colleges and universities are trying to provide evidence of these attributes through various summative assessment instruments. However, the content and structure of most assessment instruments measures what students have retained, not actual cognitive change or instances of goal achievement. This study surveyed a random sample of students at a four-year liberal arts college asking them to describe their personal learning goals and quantify the quality and usefulness of the education they received. The students’ goals were then compared to the stated goals of the institution. Findings revealed valuable information about how achievement of personal goals is tied to student perception of quality, and the implications of matching or mismatching students with institutions that can meet their predetermined expectations.
American and International Students on Body Image and Pop Culture:Self-Perceptions of Domestic and International Students Side by Side in the Mid-West
This quantitative study took an interesting look into determining factors of self-image through the eyes of both international and domestic students in Southwest Ohio. In an effort to find comparative data, Self-Perceptions of Domestic and International Students Side by Side in the Mid-West USA provided a unique glimpse into perception and appearance. Survey participants included 84 International students and 26 American students, with 52 Undergraduate and 58 either Graduate or enrolled in an intensive English program. Expanding internationalization is a cultural trend among both populations and is relational to altered perceptions as a result of foreign, peer counterparts. While this study is applicable, more research is needed among this growing student dynamic.
An Analysis of Corporate Social Responsibility Websites: Seafood Production and Environmental Degradation
Corporations are under increasing pressure from internal and external stakeholders to consider the social and environmental cost of their operations. To alleviate this concern, corporations have designed professional ethical codes by which to conduct business. This expanding practice is a facet of public relations known as “Corporate Social Responsibility,” or CSR. This project examines the seafood production industry. Seafood production poses unique environmental concerns, which can be addressed by producers in a variety of ways. A content analysis of the top seafood production websites investigates which environmental themes are being addressed in CSR policies and information pages,and how corporations are measuring their impact.
An Examination of the Relationship Between Perceived Social Support and Medication Adherence in Uninsured Patients with Hypertension
Megan K. Flaherty
Hypertension is a relatively common chronic condition that affects approximately one in three Americans. Successful management and treatment often requires individuals to take antihypertensive medications regularly. However, non-adherence to varying levels and for different reasons is rather common. Untreated hypertension can lead to serious health consequences including heart attacks, heart disease, and kidney damage. Additionally, individuals without health insurance are more likely to have uncontrolled levels of high blood pressure than those with health insurance. It was predicted that increased perceptions of social support would be correlated with higher levels of antihypertensive medication adherence. 79 uninsured individuals with at least a 3-month history of hypertension were recruited for this study from an urban free medical clinic located in a midsize Midwestern city. Participants completed survey measures to assess demographics, medication adherence, perceptions of social support from family and friends, and perceptions of social support from the clinic. Single interval compliance was also calculated from prescription claims data as an additional measure of medication adherence. Correlational analyses did not support the major hypothesis that higher perceptions of social support would be associated with better medication adherence. Future research might continue to evaluate additional aspects of social support and other factors that might be associated with medication adherence.
Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancerous death in the United States. It usually exhibits its presence with the formation of pulmonary nodules. Nodules are round or oval-shaped growth present in the lung. Chest radiographs are used by radiologists to detect and treat such nodules but they are quite difficult to detect with human eye and are sometimes misinterpreted with lesions present. Thus, automated analysis of such data is very essential and would be of valuable help in lung cancer screening. A new computer aided detection (CAD) system in chest radiography is proposed in this paper. The algorithmic steps include (i) local contrast enhancement; (ii) automated anatomical segmentation; (iii) detection of nodule candidates; (iv) feature extraction; (v) candidate classification. In this research, we present facets of the proposed algorithm using a publically available dataset and we explore into new set of features and classifiers. The publically available database was created by the Standard Digital Image Database Project Team of the Scientific Committee of the Japanese Society of Radiological Technology (JRST). The JRST dataset comprises of 154 chest radiographs containing one radiologist confirmed nodule each. In this term paper, we compute a rich set of 117 features for each potential candidate. Local contrast enhancement is achieved using a Gaussian low pass filter. Anatomical segmentation is performed using an active shape model. Potential candidate nodules can then be determined by using an adaptive distance- based threshold algorithm limited to delineated lung fields. Later, a set of features are computed for each potential candidate. Based on those tailored features, a classifier/neural network system can be used to identify the candidates as either true positives or false positives. This CAD system would aid in providing a second opinion to radiologists. Algorithm will be trained using River rain Database and would be tested later in JRST database.
The Brother Joseph W. Stander Symposium recognizes and celebrates academic excellence in undergraduate and graduate education. This annual event provides an opportunity for students from all disciplines to showcase their intellectual and artistic accomplishments. The Stander Symposium represents the Marianist tradition of education through community and is the principal campus-wide event in which faculty and students actualize our mission to be a "community of learners." This collection contains a sampling of the 200+ posters presented during the symposium.
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