Malle R. Schilling and Nathan D. Volk
Many researchers use mathematical models to understand and predict the behavior of biological systems. In this work we consider a mathematical model for diabetes mellitus presented by Hussain and Zadeng to study a metabolic disease for the regulation of glucose in the body by pancreatic insulin. The mathematical models consists of two ordinary differential equations for glucose concentration and insulin concentration. In particular, this study attempts to numerically solve the model using the Runge-Kutta methods of order 2 and 4. We will also perform a qualitative analysis on the behavior of the system
A Portfolio Weighting Strategy For a Portfolio of 9 Large Cap Healthcare Stocks: The Case for Capture Ratios, 2010 - 2015
Mitchell V. Schleyer
The Capital Asset Pricing Model (CAPM) indicates that individual stocks are systematically influenced by overall price movements in the market. One way of measuring these systematic movements is through capture ratios. In this study I utilize upside/downside capture ratios to develop portfolio weights for 9 large cap Health Care stocks which make up the largest overall weight in the Health Care Sector XLV. I test the following hypotheses: (1) The upside/downside capture ratio weighted portfolio outperforms the market (S&P 500), (2) the upside/downside capture ratio weighted portfolio outperforms XLV. (3) The performance of the upside/downside capture ratio weighted healthcare portfolio compares favorably to other weighting strategies.
Avoiding the Guillotine: The Need for Balance and Purpose in Determining Fundamental Rights under the Fourteenth Amendment
Timothy A. Campbell
This paper argues the need for a balanced approach between traditionalism (including history) and rationalism to determine fundamental rights under the Fourteenth Amendment of the U.S. Constitution. The issue of how to determine fundamental rights has intrigued the Supreme Court of the United States since 1798. The Supreme Court has desired an “objective” approach to determine what rights are “fundamental.” However, the Supreme Court has had difficulty finding an objective approach. This is because, as E.O. Wilson and Joshua Greene observed, rights are naturally subjective creations of an individual’s values. Thus, any test to determine fundamental rights will be subjective rather than objective. The debate over how to determine fundamental rights is also shaped by the rationalist and traditionalist schools of thought. Rationalists argue that fundamental rights should be determined by objective reasons, rather than history. The latter, on the other hand, argue that history still has value, and is a required component of legal analysis. Both sides of the debate bring out valid points in favor of their claims. However, neither side alone can provide a solution to the debate. As a result, what is needed is a balanced test between rationalism and traditionalism. Specifically, the test examines four factors: specificity of the right, purpose of the right, legal precedent, and history. In order for a proposed right to be fundamental, the sum of the specificity and the purpose must be greater or equal to the sum of legal precedent and history.
Stacie S. Swanton
Introduction: It is reported that two of three American adults are classified as overweight or obese; and one in three of their offspring will become overweight or obese (Sun et al., 2012). Because parental obesity is a risk factor for childhood obesity, children can also be pre-exposed to risk factors for chronic diseases such as diabetes, hypertension, coronary artery and cardiovascular diseases. It has been well established that body composition is affected by many variables such as age, sex, race, in addition to the familial environment affects such as diet and exercise habits (Baumgartner et al., 1994). Previous research has shown a stronger maternal than paternal influence on BMI during infancy and early childhood (Magarey et al., 2013). The purpose of this research was to investigate the BMI associations between mother and offspring from birth to age 18 years. Methods: Participants were selected from the Fels Longitudinal Study, in which information regarding the study has been previously published in great detail (Roche et al., 1992). The current study sample includes 6,263 mother/child pairings (n=3,215 mother/son, n= 3,048 mother/daughter). Inclusion criteria required that mothers be a mean age of 35 ± 5 years, the children be aged from 0-18 years, and have height, weight, and body mass index (BMI) data present. BMI correlations between mothers and offspring were analyzed by Spearman correlations and standardized beta coefficients. Results: BMI correlations for the mother/son relationship became statistically significant (p≤ 0.05) around the boys age 5-6 years and continued through puberty and into early adulthood at age 18 years. The mother/daughter relationship became significant at age 1.5 years for girls and also continued through adolescence, puberty and early adulthood at age 18 years. Conclusions: The mother/daughter relationship was more strongly correlated than the mother/son relationship, and also became statistically significant at an earlier age than boys.
Mariana E. Aboujaoude, Tyler D. Knoblauch, Christian Alexander Lohmeier, and Zhuochen Shi
As of 2015, the worldwide air transportation industry is expected to contain an estimated 10,000 aircraft ready for retirement. In order to offset the introduction of waste from aircraft disposal into landfills, as well as to cope with the depletion of natural resources, the recycling of airplanes is becoming more prevalent. Aircraft Recycling is a process of highly variable economic revenues. Often, the difference between having a loss and a profit is with the resale of aircraft parts, namely the engines. Recycling companies often have to charge the owner of an aircraft for the recycling process in order to make up for their labor costs, and at the same time, not all that could be recycled is actually recycled in practice. This study introduces the current processes associated with aircraft recycling and disposal. This study identifies current estimated costs and revenues behind the recycling and disposal of an aircraft and formulates a baseline. This study then introduces suggested improvements in specific waste streams (metals, parts, hazardous materials, insulation and aircraft lining, textiles, etc.) and the economics associated with these improvements. A cost-benefit analysis will determine economic feasibility of suggested improvements.
Can the Color Red Improve Men’s Perceived Mate Value?: Examining the Interactive Effects of Facial Masculinity and Color on Female Evaluation of Potential Mates
We manipulated facial masculinity (masculine-morph/feminine-morph) and color (red/white) through two independent studies—one in-lab at the University of Dayton and one online using Amazon’s MTurk—to examine its effect on social status and attractiveness for men when rated by women. We specifically aimed to see if the color red could serve a compensatory effect for feminine-faced men, who were least likely to be found attractive by women at peak fertility. When paired with red, women rated the masculine and feminine faces higher in social status. Through this increase in social status, the color red was also able to indirectly increase the physical attractiveness of the men. Additionally, the sensitivity to the color red was predicted by conception risk, such that women closer to peak fertility were most attentive of the color red.
Nicholas C. Jacobs
The materials sector performance has had a challenging time over the last few years. A slow down in China and Europe certainly have been contributing factors in XLB's weak performance. In this study, I evaluate a portfolio weighting model based on capture ratios. The covariance in price peformance between large-cap stocks in the materials sector and the market (S&P 500). In this study I use a concentrated portfolio of the 10 biggest cap-weighted stocks in XLB and weight their position in the portfolio by upside/downside capture ratios. I then test the following hypotheses; 1.)The 10 materials stocks portfolio weighted by upside/downside capture ratios outperforms the market (S&P 500) 2.) The upside/downside capture ratio weighted concentrated portfolio of materials stocks outperforms XLB and 3.) The concentrated portfolio of materials stocks, performance wise, compares favorably to other weighting strategies.
Ryan S. Schuessler and Zack Valigosky
To support movement toward a more sustainable worldview, increasing manufacturing efficiency or productivity to improve business profitability and return to shareholders alone is no longer sufficient. Today, leading manufacturers employ business practices that generate sustainable value—that is, creating economic, environmental, and societal value for all stakeholders. Progressive company culture, environmental and energy management systems, carbon neutrality, and becoming landfill free are all valuable outcomes of sustainable manufacturing. This poster outlines the the value of these outcomes as well as methods to achieve sustainable manufacturing.
Johanna B. Lantz
This study examines the cross-cultural engagement between international and domestic undergraduate engineering students at a private, Midwestern university. It uncovers the situations in which international and domestic students are engaging and explores the components which help or hinder the cross-cultural interaction between these students. This study informs higher education professionals endeavoring to provide undergraduate engineering students a greater ability to function in a global world. Data was collected through the use of one-on-one interviews with current international and domestic undergraduate engineering students. The study revealed that while international and domestic engineering students are engaging, the frequency remains low and there continues to be barriers to this engagement which should be addressed.
Geordan L. Burress
Due to the fact that Chinese international students are such a significant population within American universities across the country, it is worth investigating how this population typically adjusts to living in the United States and what stresses or issues are unique to them. However, it is also important to investigate whether or not Chinese international students experience positive transformations within themselves as a result of the adjustment challenges that they are faced with. This qualitative inquiry examines these vital questions surrounding Chinese international student adjustment, in order to contribute to a more holistic understanding of the complex experiences of Chinese international students.
This project is about the data evaluation of the pollutants in the open atmosphere such as carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, particulate matter, etc. The main aim of this project is to evaluate the data for the pollutants mentioned above as well as to generate different curves with the help of data obtained for past couple of decades and to develop some curve-fit equations to predict the approximate emission values of the pollutants for upcoming future years. As environmental pollution is one of the biggest challenges we are facing now-a-days in the current technology-based world,this work also shows the different allowable exposure limits of the pollutants as per regulations provided by the United States Environmental Protection Agency. Also, this work presents the air quality index specifications with its (U.S.EPA) different zones, providing the ways to protect our health from the long term exposure of the pollutants which can cause various diseases and disorder for living organisms, especially, human beings.
Multispectral imaging has the capability to identify the state of objects based on their spectral characteristics. These are features not available with conventional color imaging based on metameric RGB (red, green and blue) colors alone. Current multispectral imaging systems use narrowband filters to capture the spectral content of a scene, which necessitates different filters to be designed and applied for each application. We have demonstrated the concept of Fourier multispectral imaging which uses filters with sinusoidally varying transmittance by time multiplexed switchable filter array in our previous paper [1, 2]. In this paper, we designed and built a five channel, spatially multiplexed pixel filter array. This enables single-shot images and makes it possible to capture scenes containing moving objects.  J. Jia, C. Ni, A. Sarangan, and K. Hirakawa, Fourier multispectral imaging, Optics express, Vol. 23, Issue 17, pp. 22649-22657 (2015).  C. Ni, J. Jia, K. Hirakawa, A. Sarangan, Design and fabrication of sinusoidal spectral filters for multispectral imaging, in SPIE Proceedings Vol. 9556: Nanoengineering: Fabrication, Properties, Optics, and Devices XII.
Design and Prototyping of a Variable Geometry Extrusion Die to Exhibit Significant Alteration in Shape
David C. Bell
Extruded parts are conventionally made by forcing melted plastic through a steel die having a fixed opening that matches the shape of the part. Plastic parts made by extrusion include weather stripping, PVC pipe, and composite lumber. Variable geometry dies can change their opening shape during the extrusion process. Developing shape-changing dies technology offers the possibility of making parts with varying cross-sections that currently need to be made through injection molding. This is desirable as, compared to molding, extrusion tends to be faster and less expensive. Variable geometry extrusion dies have been designed and prototyped by the University of Dayton research team that confirms the validity of the concept. This research explores the limits of this new technology by creating a die that has substantial movement of components that form the die opening.
Daniel J. Whitehead
Since the 2008 recession, overall inflation as measured by CPI has been perceived to be almost non existent. In recent months, however, inflation is picking up, which in a perverse sort of way is seen as good for the economy. The purpose of this study, therefore, is to more clearly understand CPI trend inflation. To that end, I looked at a long term trend, 2001-2014, two intermediate term trends, 2001-2007 and 2009-2014 and a short term trend, 2013-2014. Monthly and yearly linear trend equations were developed for the long and intermediate term time periods. For the shorter time period both a simple monthly year-over-year comparison and a sequential monthly comparison of the change of inflation were calculated. Three key findings were discussed: 1) since 2001, the long term trend has risen close to the target rate of 2%. 2) There has been a decline in the inflation rate from 2001-2007 period to the 2009-2014 period. 3) Short term inflation rates are more robust indicating a bottoming out in the decline in inflation.
Dissecting the Sex-dependent Neurochemical Effects of the Rapid-acting Antidepressant Drug Ketamine with In Vivo Brain Microdialysis in Mice
Jonathon P. Sens and Connor F. Thelen
Major depression is a devastating mental disorder that affects nearly 20% of the world’s population. Notably, women experience major depression at roughly twice the rate of men and respond differently to different types of antidepressant drugs. However, the neurobiological mechanisms underlying this sex-differentiated responsiveness remain a largely neglected area of experimentation with current treatments based almost exclusively on research conducted in males. Most importantly, currently marketed antidepressant drugs take anywhere from weeks to months in order to elicit their therapeutic effects, thus leading to increased drop-out rates. Ketamine is a unique, rapid-acting antidepressant drug that alleviates depressive symptomatology in both treatment-resistant depressed patients and in animal models of depression. Despite data regarding the antidepressant efficacy of ketamine in the male sex, there is scant evidence of its neurobiological effects on females. Herein, we implemented an in vivo microdialysis approach to investigate the kinetics of glutamate release in the mouse medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), a brain region implicated in ketamine’s antidepressant mechanism of action. Specifically, male and female mice were administered a single dose of ketamine (10 mg/kg) following stereotactic implantation of a microdialysis probe in the mPFC. Samples were collected every 10 min in a microcentrifuge tube for one hour and glutamate was assayed with high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with coulometric detection. Furthermore, we identified the temporal molecular effects of ketamine on the expression of two prominent presynaptic proteins implicated in neurotransmitter release (i.e. Synapsin I and Syntaxin I). Mice were administered a single dose of ketamine (10 mg/kg) and were sacrificed at specific time-points (i.e. 0, 2, and 4h or 1, 3, and 7 days post-administration). Collectively, this study revealed that there is an important time-factor that distinguishes the neurochemical responses of the two sexes to a single dose of ketamine, thereby illustrating that different neurobiological mechanisms underlie its rapid antidepressant actions.
Andrew M. Imhoff
Academic studies by Eugene Fama and Kenneth French as well as Robert Novy Marx identify profitability as one of the factors determining the variation in excess returns in the cross section of stock returns. Using return on equity (ROE) as my measure of profitability and the S&P 500 as my universe of stocks, I examine the impact of ROE on S&P 500 stock performance for the period 2009 - 2014. I test the following hypotheses with respect to ROE: (1) Portfolios of firms with high ROE's (40% or higher) outperform the market with persistence i.e. over long periods of time, (2) Growth firms with high ROE's outperform value firms with high ROE's, (3) Portfolios of high ROE firms outperform portfolios of low ROE firms.
Michael J. Hudock
Compression socks are common tools that are utilized in the realm of athletics. The purpose of the compression is to increase blood flow to the lower extremities, thereby increasing oxygen and energy sources needed for increased skeletal muscle function and/or recovery. Recently, a product has been marketed that combines the compression element and cryotherapy, with the goal being increased blood flow to the lower extremities while reducing inflammation post-workout to quicken recovery. However, to our knowledge, direct measures of blood flow using this type of product have not been performed. Thus, this study looks at the effects of compression with and without cryotherapy (e.g. icing) on the blood flow of trained male athletes. The hypothesis was that compression would increase blood flow, ice would reduce it, and a combination of both would produce an intermediate result. The present results indicate that compression, alone or in combination with ice, does not increase CBF as measured by venous occlusion plethysmograph, at rest in trained males. Furthermore, CBF was not attenuated during the ice alone condition. Taken together, the marketed effects of this product are questioned in the present experimental setup.
Foot functionality is integral to normal human locomotion. The most commonly assessed area of the human body studied during locomotion is the medial longitudinal arch and its deformation. The Arch Height Index Measurement System (AHIMS) is the most reliable tool to measure this arch. This system typically measures arch deformation in two baseline conditions, sitting and standing. The sitting condition is considered unweighted and approximately 10% of a person’s body weight. The standing condition is considered a loaded condition and represents 50% of body weight. The first aim of this study was to see if the baseline measurements traditionally taken with the AHIMS were valid assessments of their perspective body weight conditions. The second aim was to characterize the body weight load and arch deformation relationship. This study used the AHIMS to replicate loaded body weight conditions during gait, from 10-120% of a subject’s body weight. The subjects’ arch height was measured at twelve different body weight measurements of 10% increments (10-120%) using a real-time force data stream. The subjects were also loaded with a weighted vest that contained 20% of their body weight in order to aid them in achieving the higher loads of weight. Their arch deformation was recorded at all 12 conditions. The results will further the understanding of how the foot and specifically the arch change during ambulation.
Memristor,the forth fundamental circuit element, has opened new phase in the realm of thin film semiconducting device. The non-volatility of memristors, used as Resistive switching RAM, is promising for applications such as DRAM, hard disks etc. The implementation of a memristor device with Tungsten Oxide (WOx) is presented in this work. The presentation addresses fundamental electrical characterization of the memristor devices for their switching performance. Resistive switching in WOx is bipolar in nature. The Pd/WOx/W made memristors become more conductive (resistive) when applied with a positive (negative) bias voltage. The conductance or resistance change is controlled by the re-distribution of oxygen vacancies (VOx) within the WOx film creating or removing conductive regions between the two electrodes. Here switching is analog type that refers to the incremental modulation of the device conductance. As a result the total change of resistance within the device goes higher which is in the range of 100. With the practical implementation of the suggested work we will be able to fabricate memristor devices with faster switching capability. Such Tungsten oxide based memristor provides better switching, assures non-volatile memory effect and also gives precise analog nature of a memory device for advanced neuromorphic application.
Elizabeth A. Abrams, Timothy K. Fasano, Brandon Paluch, and Kristine T. Perez
Students from all three Marianist Universities (Chaminade in Honolulu, St. Mary’s in San Antonio and the University of Dayton) lived together in community for a week in Los Angeles, learning about its cultural richness as well as issues of poverty, homelessness, immigration and criminal justice. They served on Skid Row, at a domestic violence shelter and urban Catholic schools, praying and reflecting on how to be leaders advancing social justice in the Marianist spirit. Hear what lessons they learned about encounter and kinship.
Thomas L. Bennett
Porphyrins are a specific class of aromatic, heterocyclic compounds that are either naturally occurring or artificially synthesized. Porphyrins have demonstrated robust antibacterial properties, which arise from the generation of singlet oxygen. However, most porphyrins are photodynamic, meaning they require activation by light at an optimal wavelength. A novel porphyrin, developed by Dr. Shawn Swavey (UD Chemistry Department) has shown exceptional antibacterial efficiency against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, even without photoactivation. As P. aeruginosa infections are often the root cause behind lung diseases, such as cystic fibrosis, identifying a way to safely control bacterial presence is a major concern. The ability of this novel porphyrin to effectively work in the dark identified this molecule as belonging to the rare group of porphyrins that hold potential for lung therapeutics. Therefore, this project evaluated the response of human lung co-culture model following exposure to the synthesized porphyrin. The lung co- culture was comprised of A549 epithelial and U937 macrophage cells, thereby allowing for the detection of inflammatory responses, in addition to cellular viability and stress induction. The viability of the lung co-culture model was assessed after a 24 hour exposure to the porphyrin at multiple concentrations, with no induction of cellular death identified. Looking beyond toxicity, the stress and inflammatory responses were investigated through evaluation of reaction oxygen species (ROS) levels and secretion of target cytokines, respectively. Taken together, these results will help support the development of novel porphyrins for lung therapeutics through determination of their safety within enhanced mammalian models.
Examining Factors Associated with High Leadership Self-Efficacy Among International Women College Students in the U.S.
Chanel M. Winston
Leadership self-efficacy is an area of self-efficacy related to the level of confidence one has in his or her knowledge, skills, and abilities to lead others (Bandura, 1997). When leadership self- efficacy is placed within the context of student development, it has the ability to contribute to or negate from a student’s motivation to persist and succeed in leadership associated tasks (Bandura, 1993; Stage, 1996). The goal of this research is to explore how international female undergraduate students perceive their leadership abilities in relation to their personally constructed definition of leadership. Through qualitative interviews with six international female undergraduate students, this research identifies specific experiences that contribute to their leadership self -efficacy. Common themes associated with high leadership self-efficacy are pre-college leadership experiences, on campus involvement, and overall self-confidence.
Fall Risk Assessment of Older Adults with Dementia Attending Goodwill Easter Seals Adult Day Services Programs
Jamie L. Wynk
Older adults with dementia are at an increased risk for falls. However, little is known about what specific factors increase fall risk in this population. The purpose of this study was to assess performance based fall risk factors among older adults with dementia who attend day service programs in the Miami Valley so that more specific interventions can be designed to reduce future falls. To be included in this study, participants had to attend Goodwill Easter Seals Adult Day Service and have a diagnosis of dementia. There were 19 participants in this study (8 male) with an average age of 72 years old (ranged 64-86 years old). Participants were assessed for cognitive function by using the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA). Testing also included gait speed, the Timed Up and Go test, a 30-second sit to stand test, and a grip strength test. The average MoCA score (16 points) was consistent with MoCA scores for the cognitively impaired or Alzheimer’s population. MoCA scores ranged greatly (0-29 points) signifying a wide range of cognitive abilities among this population. Participants scored lower than published age matched normative values for each measure, signifying an increase in fall risk by each parameter. In the future, an intervention should be designed that can be easily implemented in day service programs with an emphasis on targeting the strength of large anti-gravity muscles of the lower limbs and trunk.
Katherine J. Gross, Marissa Christine Jama, and Charles Conner Yancey
In the realm of healthcare, it is often difficult to decipher how to locate personal and primary physicians. Those living in the United States are familiar with the role of family care physicians, however, individuals who have immigrated to the U.S. may not fully understand how to find a family physician. The topic of family physicians is important because many other countries do not have primary care physicians that require appointments. For our project, we took two documents that tested at a reading level of 12th grade. We did this by testing the original documents with the SMOG test and the Flesch-Kincaid Test. The SMOG test was performed manually and evaluated the documents’ sentence structure and individual word syllables. The Flesch-Kincaid Test was performed via the program Word and measured the documents’ average reading level. We then presented this document to students in the Level 2 Intensive English Program (IEP) at the University of Dayton to gauge how readable our revised document was. In addition to lowering the level of the vocabulary, we provided the students with a visual step-by-step guide outlining the process of finding a family physician in America. The processes included routes that the individual can take to find a physician if they do possess health insurance or if they do not possess health insurance. Through several meetings with the IEP students we were able to obtain feedback as to how to improve the quality of our document. By lowering the readability level of our documents to a 6th grade level, we made the information of locating a primary care physician in the Dayton area to these students.
Greek Life and Catholic Universities: Do the Values of Greek Life Match with Those of the Catholic Church?
John A. Goebel
Greek Life organizations face many negative stipulations across the United States due to several allegations of disrespectful actions. Due to these negative actions, there are Catholic institutions across the United States that do not allow Greek Life organizations on their respective campus. Such reasons Catholic institutions give is that Greek Life is not needed on campus for students to live out Catholic values. Instead, students have service, special interest and sports clubs to join to live out Catholic values. As a student apart of Greek Life on the University of Dayton’s campus feel that the values between Greek life and the Marianist match up. If Greek life can encourage members to live out their catholic values at Dayton, then why is their trouble on campuses such as the University of Notre Dame to accept Greek life? I used a data and statistical approach to understand the amount of Catholic institutions that accept Greek Life. I discovered there are many institutions that find Greek Life valuable to living out Catholic Values. In this presentation, I am comparing the schools that accept to those that don’t accept Greek Life. Secondly, I am explaining the reasons why and why not Greek Life is acceptable on Catholic campuses. Lastly, I am covering the survey answers from University of Dayton graduate and undergraduate students.
The Brother Joseph W. Stander Symposium recognizes and celebrates academic excellence in undergraduate and graduate education. This annual event provides an opportunity for students from all disciplines to showcase their intellectual and artistic accomplishments. The Stander Symposium represents the Marianist tradition of education through community and is the principal campus-wide event in which faculty and students actualize our mission to be a "community of learners." This collection contains a sampling of the 200+ posters presented during the symposium.
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