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Biological Invasions


The ecology of headwater streams is tightly linked to the riparian zone through organic matter subsidies which are highly susceptible to alteration due to biological invasion. Lonicera maackii is a non-native shrub that is a highly successful invader of headwater stream riparian zones in the American Midwest. We assessed effects on benthic macroinvertebrates across a gradient of invasion intensity from references sites with minimal invasion to a site that had a very heavy invasion. Benthic macroinvertebrates were sampled throughout the year and compositional differences were assessed using Non-metric Multidimensional Scaling ordination, and by comparing the prevalence of sensitive (Ephemeroptera, Plectoptera, and Trichoptera: EPT) and tolerant (Chironomidae) macroinvertebrate taxa. We found strong evidence of variation among macroinvertebrate communities across the invasion gradient (ANOSIM R = 0.215, P = 0.004) and particularly strong separation between one of our reference sites with minimal invasion and the site with the heaviest invasion. Analysis of EPT taxa indicated a significant overall effect and pairwise comparisons indicated that the site with the heaviest invasion had the lowest percentage of sensitive taxa (P < 0.05). Our analysis of chironomids did not yield a statistically discernable effect, although the pattern of the data suggest higher dominance in the site with the heaviest invasion. These stream-scale results bolster prior laboratory and field experiments and provide evidence that terrestrial invasion of L. maackiiimpacts the benthic community present in headwater streams. These results provide impetus to re-focus stream management recommendations to include practices that control invasive plants in riparian forests.



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McEwan Laboratory

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