Document Type


Publication Date


Publication Source

Emerging Microbes & Infections


Molecular carbapenem-resistance testing, such as for the presence of carbapenemases genes, is commonly implemented for the detection of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacterales. Carbapenemase-producing P. aeruginosa is also associated with significant morbidity and mortality, although; prevalence may be underappreciated in the United States due to a lack of carbapenemase testing. The present study sought to compare hands-on time, cost and workflow implementation of carbapenemase gene testing in Enterobacterales and P. aeruginosa isolates versus sending out isolates to a public health laboratory (PHL) for testing to assess if in-house can provide actionable results. The time to carbapenemase gene results were compared. Differences in cost for infection prevention measures were extrapolated from the time of positive carbapenemase gene detection in-house versus PHL. The median time to perform carbapenemase gene testing was 7.5 min (range 5–14) versus 10 min (range 8–22) for preparation to send isolates to the PHL. In-house testing produced same day results compared with a median of 6 days (range 3–14) to receive results from PHL. Cost of in-house testing and send outs were similar ($46.92 versus $40.53, respectively). If contact precautions for patients are implemented until carbapenemase genes are ruled out, in-house testing can save an estimated $76,836.60 annually. Extension of in-house carbapenemase testing to include P. aeruginosa provides actionable results 3–14 days earlier than PHL Standard Pathway testing, facilitating guided therapeutic decisions and infection prevention measures. Supplemental phenotypic algorithms can be implemented to curb the cost of P. aeruginosa carbapenemases testing by identifying isolates most likely to harbour carbapenemases.


Online ISSN: 2222-1751

Document Version

Published Version


This document is made available for download in compliance with the publisher’s open-access policy. Permission documentation is on file.


Taylor & Francis



Peer Reviewed





Carbapenemase, P. aeruginosa, Enterobacterales, workflow, rapid diagnostics testing

Link to published version