Advances in Tribology
Phosphate esters, thiophosphate esters and metal thiophosphates have been used as lubricant additives for over 50 years. Recently, phosphorus‐containing ionic liquids have emerged as a new class of lubricant additives. While the use of phosphorus compounds has been extensive, a detailed knowledge of how they work has been a much more recent development. In this chapter, the use of phosphate esters, thiophosphate esters, metal thiophosphates and phosphorus‐containing ionic liquids as antiwear or extreme pressure additives is discussed. The primary emphasis will be on how they form a protective film, which is both durable and reduces friction. The first part of the chapter discusses the use of alkyl phosphates, triaryl phosphates and metal‐containing thiophosphate esters with primarily iron‐ and steel‐based bearing materials. The second part of the chapter examines phosphorus‐containing ionic liquids and the challenges posed by new bearing materials with different surface chemistries.
© 2016 The Author(s). Licensee InTech. This chapter is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Place of Publication
Johnson, David W., "The Tribology and Chemistry of Phosphorus Containing Lubricant Additives" (2016). Chemistry Faculty Publications. 86.