Document Type

Book Chapter

Publication Date


Publication Source

Advances in Tribology


Phosphate esters, thiophosphate esters and metal thiophosphates have been used as lubricant additives for over 50 years. Recently, phosphorus‐containing ionic liquids have emerged as a new class of lubricant additives. While the use of phosphorus compounds has been extensive, a detailed knowledge of how they work has been a much more recent development. In this chapter, the use of phosphate esters, thiophosphate esters, metal thiophosphates and phosphorus‐containing ionic liquids as antiwear or extreme pressure additives is discussed. The primary emphasis will be on how they form a protective film, which is both durable and reduces friction. The first part of the chapter discusses the use of alkyl phosphates, triaryl phosphates and metal‐containing thiophosphate esters with primarily iron‐ and steel‐based bearing materials. The second part of the chapter examines phosphorus‐containing ionic liquids and the challenges posed by new bearing materials with different surface chemistries.

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Document Version

Published Version


Citation information for the book in which this chapter appears:

Darji, P. H. (Ed.). Advances in Tribology. Croatia. (Chapter 8) InTechOpen. 2016. ISBN: 978-953-51-2742-0. DOI:

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Place of Publication

Rijeka, Croatia