Photonic Band-Gap Enhanced Second-Harmonic Generation in a Planar Lithium Niobate Waveguide
Enhanced second-harmonic generation (SHG) conversion efficiency was theoretically predicted in waveguide geometry with coupling to a one-dimensional grating photonic band gap (PBG). We report a series of experiments using samples made with lithium niobate. A waveguide was fabricated near the surface by applying the proton-exchange technique. The characteristics of waveguide modes were determined by several techniques: prism coupling, diffraction, and Cherenkov radiation. The WKB method was used to analyze the results. Ultraviolet laser lithography was applied to make PBG gratings on the sample. We further investigated Cherenkov second-harmonic generation (CSHG), i.e., SHG radiated into the substrate, under the condition of a band-edge PBG resonance in the waveguides. The SHG inside planar waveguides was also experimentally investigated. We fabricated waveguides with multiple pump modes and found that the second mode was more efficient in enhancing the second harmonic signal. This result is explained by our model. Several samples were investigated in detail; the highest conversion efficiency of CSHG with a PBG was enhanced around 50 times above the CSHG signal without a PBG. A numerical model was constructed with parameters calculated from our sample characterization data to interpret the experimental results.
Copyright © 2006, MAIK Nauka/Interperiodica
Deng, Cong; Haus, Joseph W.; Sarangan, Andrew; Mahfoud, Aziz; Sibilia, Concita; Scalora, Michael; and Zheltikov, Aleksei M., "Photonic Band-Gap Enhanced Second-Harmonic Generation in a Planar Lithium Niobate Waveguide" (2006). Electro-Optics and Photonics Faculty Publications. 71.