The primacy of Christ as the foundation of the coredemption: the Mariology of Fr. Juniper B. Carol, O.F.M. (1911-1990)

Date of Award


Degree Name

M.A. in Theological Studies


Department of Religious Studies


Advisor: William L. Portier


This study analyzes the work of the American Mariologist Fr. Juniper B. Carol O.F.M. (1911-1990) in light of his historical and theological context. Carol's work focused primarily on the Coredemption, which he studied before Vatican II, and the primacy of Christ, which he studied after the Council. Carol's work significantly influenced international Mariology and provides an example of how one Mariologist responded to the theological developments that occurred after Vatican II. Carol's work demonstrates the influence of his Franciscan heritage, in both his pre-Conciliar discussion of Mary's mediation and Coredemption and his post-Conciliar discussion of the debitum peccati, the preservative redemption, and the predestination and primacy of Christ. In his pre-Conciliar work, Carol argued that Mary immediately participated in the objective Redemption by co-meriting with Christ. His main argument in support of this position was based on the Patristic principle of recirculation-association and Mary's role as the New Eve. After the Second Vatican Council, Carol began to study topics related to the predestination of Christ and Mary. Carol held the Franciscan position regarding Christ's primacy in the order of predestination; however, he also maintained that the Redemption was predestined prior to the Fall. In addition, he favored the idea that the Passion was primarily an act of perfect worship rendered to the Father, making the Redemption a secondary reason for the Incarnation. Our study investigates why Carol maintained this surprising variation on the traditional Franciscan thesis and argues that his position is an implicit attempt to defend his pre-Conciliar work on the Coredemption using themes present in Lumen Gentium.Our study begins by considering the ultramontanism and anti-modernism of the early twentieth century and discusses Carol's pre-Conciliar work on the Coredemption in light of this context and the debates within the Marian movement. Next, it considers the development of the conflict between the ecclesiotypical and Christotypical schools of Mariology, examining their impact at Vatican II by tracing the development of the Marian schema. Finally, it discusses Carol's post-Conciliar work and considers how this work responds to the Council. It concludes by analyzing the connection between Carol's pre-Conciliar and post-Conciliar work, arguing that his position on the primacy of Christ implicitly supports his position on the Coredemption based on the concept of predestination as expressed in Lumen Gentium.


Carol, Juniper B, 1911-1990, Mary, Blessed Virgin, Saint Theology 20th century, Mary, Blessed Virgin, Saint Coredemption, Religion, Religious History, Theology, Carol, Juniper, Coredemption, Primacy of Christ, Mariology, Vatican II, Marian Movement

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