Long-Term Executive Functioning Deficits in Children After a Traumatic Brain Injury

Date of Award


Degree Name

Specialist in Education (Ed.S.)


Department of Counselor Education and Human Services


Advisor: Susan Davies


Traumatic brain injury (TBI) poses significant challenges for students as they begin or reenter school. Impaired executive functioning (EF) is a particularly debilitating consequence of a TBI. The present study expanded upon existing research by evaluating longitudinal EF data in children who sustained TBIs. Participants were preselected due to their inclusion in an existing data set provided by Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center in Cincinnati, Ohio. Data were collected from three different hospital sites in the Ohio. The EF deficits as reported by caregivers and teachers at 18 months differed from their ratings seven years later. The average means (BRIEF T-scores) recorded seven years' post-injury were higher than the average mean scores recorded at 18 months. Data analysis indicated an inter-rater agreement between teachers and parent's perceptions of EF deficits, while student self-perceptions of EF deficits differed from teacher and caregiver perceptions. This study clarifies effects of early childhood TBI on EF in middle school and aims to improve school psychologists' understanding of how caregivers, teachers, and students themselves perceive these skills.


Special Education, Psychology, Middle School Education, Educational Psychology, Education, Traumatic brain injury, TBI, executive functioning, executive functioning deficits, long-term executive functioning deficits, school psychologists, early childhood TBI

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