The Relationship Between Perceived Parenting Styles and College Sophomores' Independence

Date of Award


Degree Name

Specialist in Education (Ed.S.)


Department of Counselor Education and Human Services


Advisor: Susan Davies


The transition from the first to second year of college can be a challenging time for college students and one that calls for increased independence. Extensive research exists on Baumrind's four parenting styles (authoritative, authoritarian, permissive, and negligent) but not in relation to independence in college. This study examined the relationship between perceived parenting styles and four factors of independence (social competence, autonomy, locus of control, and executive functioning) in a sample of college sophomores. Results showed no significant difference in independence scores among parenting style groups. Limitations of the findings may be related to reliability and/or validity of the study's measures, or use of only one construct of parenting styles. Additionally, the researcher posits that personality may play a larger role in student independence than initially hypothesized. Implications for future research are discussed.


Education, Educational Psychology, Families and Family Life, Psychology, Parenting styles, college sophomores, independence

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