Number sense intervention: a comparison of a packaged program and a research-based strategy

Date of Award


Degree Name

Ed.S. in School Psychology


Department of Counselor Education & Human Services


Advisor: Elana R. Bernstein


The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of two different Tier 2 number sense interventions on the mathematics performance of first-grade students identified as having mathematics difficulties on a universal screening tool. A quasiexperimental study was conducted utilizing single case design. Participants (N=6) were assigned to either a Number Worlds intervention or a cover-copy-compare intervention. It was hypothesized that the students receiving the Number Worlds intervention would demonstrate more growth from the winter to spring on the universal screening measure benchmark assessment than students receiving the cover-copy-compare intervention. This was measured by computing the g-index, the Mann-Whitney U test of nonparametric measures, and visual analysis. The g-index indicated the Number Worlds intervention yielded a slightly larger effect size and the Mann-Whitney U also supported the hypothesis but the results were not significant. The g-index, Mann-Whitney U, and visual analysis each indicated positive effects on growth in number sense skills as measured by mathematics computation fluency measures.


Mathematics Study and teaching (Elementary) Methodology Case studies, First grade (Education) Case studies, Education, Mathematics Education, number sense, mathematics intervention, intervention, cover-copy-compare, Number Worlds

Rights Statement

Copyright © 2014, author