Evaluation of a packaged intervention for treating selective mutism : application in a school setting
Polyurethane foams, a class of materials renowned for durability and ease of production, also represent a significant fire hazard through their inclusion in such ubiquitous consumer goods as carpet underlay, mattresses, and furniture. These foams ignite easily, burn at incredible rates, and release enormous amounts of vision-obscuring smoke. This smoke, due to several additives, can carry highly toxic molecules, such as carbon monoxide and hydrogen cyanide, if fire conditions are conducive to such species. Flame retardants are required by law to slow the spread of flame, and the largest class in use are halogenated flame retardants, particularly additive brominated varieties. The use of these additives has presented some environmental hazard when select species have known persistent/bioaccumulation/toxicity (PBT) issues and they migrate into the environment during long-term use or improper disposal. Over the last several years, states and federal organizations have banned some flame retardants, ushering in a need for new such materials, especially reactive flame retardants based on phosphorus. Reactive flame retardants incorporate themselves into the polyurethane via covalent bonds, and cannot easily leach out of the product during its lifetime. Such use of reactive flame retardants should mitigate environmental hazards and eliminate PBT issues for those flame retardants.Thus, the purpose of this project was to develop and standardize procedures for two novel phosphorus-containing, non-halogenated flame retardants, a phosphate and a phosphonate; study their incorporation into longer oligomer-based diols; and fully characterize such diols using hydroxyl value titrations, proton and phosphorus NMR, elemental analysis, MALDI-TOF mass spectroscopy, and viscosity studies.