Fabrication of a deoxyribonucleic acid polymer ridge waveguide electro-optic modulator by nanoimprint lithography
This thesis analyses the potential of large-scale grid-connected solar photovoltaic (PV) and wind power plants in two of Afghanistan's most populous provinces (Balkh and Herat) to meet a fraction of growing electricity demand. The analysis is performed by quantifying resource quality, variability and cost of energy generation. First, the quality of solar and wind resources is quantified by characterizing wind speed and solar radiation and calculating capacity factors and energy yields from hypothetical power plants using measured wind speed and typical solar radiation data. Second, variability of wind and solar resources is quantified by comparing their daily and seasonal profiles with electricity demand profiles, analyzing their impacts on load duration curves and determining their penetration and curtailment levels for various demand scenarios. Finally, cost of energy generated from solar PV and wind power plants is determined. The research shows that future solar PV and wind power plants in Balkh and Herat provinces could achieve very high penetration levels without significant curtailment meaning less reliance on unpredictable and unstable power purchase agreements with neighboring countries, longer life of limited domestic fossil fuel resources such as coal and natural gas, and less imports of diesel fuel with rising costs and unfriendly environmental impacts.