Document Type


Publication Date


Publication Source

International Journal of Volleyball Research


Seeking to understand the relationship between Title IX and its impact on a select group of its contemporary beneficiaries, the purpose of this study was to determine the influence of Title IX on the personal and professional biographies of 8 early career female club volleyball coaches. This study utilized a modified case study design featuring constant comparison data analysis. Data were collected using a qualitative interview technique with each of the candidate’s interviews subdivided into four distinct sections. Part I of the interview established a basic personal and professional biography of each individual coach. Part II provided data on the subject’s athletic experiences. Part III addressed the life goals of the coaches. Part IV explored each individual participant’s knowledge of Title IX. Findings revealed the existence of major themes common across all 8 coaches including (a) the shared belief that athletics provided opportunities for them to develop valuable lifelong personal and professional skills, (b) that opportunities for the acquisition of such skills were their implicit right (i.e., not directly attributable to Title IX, about which they knew little), and (c) the existence of an enduring commitment to the sport of volleyball as a source of personal identity and fulfillment. Once educated fully about Title IX, however, the coaches were unanimous in their belief that although progress in women’s athletics -- related to the impact of Title IX -- had permitted them to succeed, inequity vis-à-vis opportunities accorded their male counterparts still existed. Correspondingly, the findings of this study suggest a post-gender society has not yet been attained and that efforts to ensure equal opportunity must continue.

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Document Version

Published Version


Included in eCommons with express written permission of USA Volleyball.


USA Volleyball





Place of Publication

Colorado Springs, CO

Peer Reviewed



Title IX, coaching, volleyball, gender equity, women's athletics