On April 22, 2020, the Stander Symposium was held virtually in light of the COVID-19 pandemic. Students could share their work via live online presentation; recorded video presentation; making their work available for download; or a combination of these options.
This gallery contains projects from the 2020 Stander Symposium by students, faculty and staff in the College of Arts and Sciences.
3D Building Reconstruction Using Cubodial Fitting and Geospacial Information
Karthik Balaji Ashok Kumar
3D reconstruction from a set of 2D images has been widely used in building modelling. However, there exist some intrinsic information of building that can be exploited for modelling. In this proposal, we propose a novel method for building modelling. We first fit cuboids into the 2D images. From the cuboid fitting, we initialize the building shape. The building’s texture is later updated via image panorama. Finally, the building model is refined with the geospatial information. The experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of our proposed method.
A Critical Analysis of Youth Empowerment in Afghan Civil Society by Counterpart International
Emma Adams, Morgan Day, Justin This
The professed goal of the development paradigm is to bring the “underdeveloped” nations up to the level of the “developed” nations through increased autonomy of their society’s poor and marginalized groups. By the end of the first decade of development in the late 1950s, however, experts had to come to terms with development’s failure to achieve the growth desired in the underdeveloped nations. In light of these shortcomings, many in the field of development concluded the cause was excluding the very people who were supposed to most benefit from development: the poor and marginalized. In an effort to right these wrongs, the development field turned to a new set of methods: grassroots participation, and as a corollary to that, a push for local leadership. Inherent in this push for grassroots involvement is the need to develop leaders within the target population to strengthen the country’s development through its own civil society organizations (CSOs). One such organization that is now pursuing this new goal of local leadership is Counterpart International. Through its Emerging Civil Society Leaders (ECSL) program, Counterpart has been working in Afghanistan to develop local leaders who can help the country address the myriad of problems it currently faces. This presentation aims to provide an analysis of Counterpart’s ECSL program. By comparing Counterpart’s efforts to those of other organizations with similar goals and with literature critical of the development paradigm, the aim is to provide a thorough analysis of the impact of Counterpart’s ECSL program in Afghanistan.
Activation of JNK Signaling in Aβ42-expressing Neurons Triggers Cell Death in Wild-Type Neurons in a Drosophila Eye Model of Alzheimer’s Disease
Catherine Yeates, Ankita Sarkar, Prajakta Deshpande
Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a debilitating neurodegenerative disorder that currently has no cure and few effective treatments. One process that underlies the pathology of AD is the accumulation of amyloid beta 42 (Aβ42) plaques, which leads to aberrant activation of cell signaling pathways and neurodegeneration. Many transgenic models use the expression of human Aβ42 throughout the entire central nervous system or developing eye. Here we use a Drosophila eye model of AD to investigate interactions between wild-type and Aβ42-expressing neurons. We have developed a two-clone system using the FLP/FRT and Gal80/Gal4/UAS approaches to generate animals with GFP-negative wild-type (WT) clones of cells adjacent to GFP-positive Aβ42-expressing clones. Surprisingly, we found that WT clones, which do not express Aβ42, are eliminated by cell death, leading to a significant decrease in clone size compared to Aβ42-expressing clones. Furthermore, the evolutionarily conserved c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) signaling pathway is induced in Aβ42-expressing cells. However, it is the WT sister clones that are preferentially affected by the increase in JNK activity from Aβ42-expressing cells. Downregulating JNK signaling in the Aβ42-expressing cells restores the size of the wild-type clones. This suggests that complex crosstalk between Aβ42-expressing cells and adjacent WT cells leads to JNK-mediated neurodegeneration of WT tissue.
A Cyte to See: An Exploratory Investigation of Hemocytes and Cellular Biomineralization in Crassostrea virginica
Connor D. Holzer, Noah S. Leibold
Biogenically constructed calcium carbonate is one of the most utilized raw materials in the modern world. Used in areas such as construction, pharmaceuticals, animal feed, electrochemistry, plastics manufacturing, and development of bioarmor. The usage of biological materials in a variety of industries is rapidly becoming commonplace especially with the societal movement towards sustainability and sustainable materials. One common biomaterial is that of the mollusc shell. Our research focuses on how the Eastern oyster, Crassostrea virginica, deposits shell. While the scientific literature is replete with reports on structure and composition of oyster shell, it is still uncertain where materials are synthesized within the oyster and more importantly how they are transported and assembled at the shell formation front. Elucidating the processes of synthesis, transport, and assembly are key aspects to understanding the mechanism of shell biomineralization. Expanding upon the previous research, the present study builds upon the potential role of oyster blood cells, specifically hemocytes, as participants in the complex process of shell formation.An exploratory notch-repair study was conducted to assess cellular hemocyte changes over a seven-day sampling period. All experimental oysters were notched on Day 1 and hemolymph samples were harvested every twenty-four hours for seven days; control (un-notched) hemolymph was also harvested at each timepoint. Hemocyte concentrations were determined using hemocytometry, and images of repair shell were taken at each time point. Our hypothesis is that total hemocyte counts will vary over the seven-day repair period as shell repair/deposition occurs.Our results show a significant decrease in hemocyte concentrations from days one through four and a robust overall fluctuation in cell numbers over all seven days following localized shell damage. These changes in hemocyte numbers suggest that cellular components of oyster blood may be participating in shell deposition/repair in damaged oysters. This research demonstrates a possible correlation between total hemocyte counts and the onset of visible shell repair in notched oysters. Additional research is warranted in order to more clearly understand the role of hemocytes in shell deposition.
An Assessment of Benthic Macroinvertebrate Community Diversity Following Tait Station Low Dam Removal
Samantha Jean Berkley, Karrington Saige Ecker, Emma Claire Hiltner, Madison Spooner Johnson
The goal of this project is to analyze how river habitat quality in the Great Miami River has changed after the Tait Station low dam removal that occurred in 2018 and how that has affected biodiversity of macroinvertebrates. Dr. Kavanaugh’s river researchers took kick and sweep net samples in the Fall of 2019, one year after low dam removal, in the exact location where the dam had stood. These samples will be sorted, identified, and used to generate a number of indices of biodiversity such as; number of taxa, species richness, numbers of EPT taxa, and the MAIS composite index. This data will be compared directly to the Miami Conservancy District report (Kavanaugh, 2016) which describes community conditions before the dam was removed. In this early report, the quality of the area surrounding the dam was rated “good” by the MAIS. We predict that biodiversity may have been reduced in 2019 due to disturbances to the river channel during low dam removal in 2018. However, a factor that may play an important role and could mitigate negative impacts was the extensive stream channel restoration that was part of dam removal. It's possible the constructed riffles and other stream bed restoration methods may have mitigated much of the predicted negative impacts. The implications of this study are valuable because low dam removal is a common river restoration tactic, but more research is needed on how this practice affects macroinvertebrate communities and habitat quality in the long run.
An Evaluation of Benthic Macroinvertebrate Community Diversity Following Construction at RiverScape Metropark
Madison Spooner Johnson, Meaghan Lees Lightfoot, Gretchen M Lozowski, Amanda R. Ratliff
The goal of this project is to analyze how the macroinvertebrate community has changed over a period of two years following the construction of a kayak chute at RiverScape MetroPark. Dr. Kavanaugh’s river research laboratory took kick net, sweep net, and Hester-Dendy samples in the Great Miami River in the fall of 2017. These samples were collected both on and directly downstream from the kayak chute that was constructed a few months prior in the spring of 2017. The 2017 samples indicated that the macroinvertebrate community rated “poor” according to the composite Macroinvertebrate Aggregated Index for Streams (MAIS) diversity index. In order to determine if the macroinvertebrate community has improved since the kayak chute was constructed, a team of river researchers collected kick net, sweep net, and Hester-Dendy samples in the fall of 2019 in the same locations. The organisms from these samples were sorted and identified, then characterized based on total number of taxa, abundance of individuals in each taxon. We predicted that the community would exhibit significantly improved biodiversity according to the composite of metrics used in the MAIS and other biodiversity indices due to the length of time that has passed allowing macroinvertebrate populations to recolonize the areas following the initial disturbance. The outcome of this project will be significant because it will provide insight into how benthic macroinvertebrates were affected by the construction of a major in-stream structure, and their ability to recover from the disturbance.
An Evaluation of Mental Health Resources and Student Perceptions at the University of Dayton
The aim of this study is to examine perceptions of mental health resources at the University of Dayton. Previous scholarly research emphasizes that college students are at a high risk for experiencing mental health issues while not seeking or utilizing mental health resources on college campuses. Due to the rising prevalence of college students experiencing mental health problems, it is important to address the barriers students face when accessing mental health resources on campus. I begin by evaluating campus mental health resources through interviews with faculty and students who are connected with mental health resources in the public eye. After gathering information about these mental health resources, I constructed a resource map providing location and contact information for all available resources. In proceeding with my research I conducted surveys with undergraduate students (n=86). Findings from this mixed-methods evaluation study will provide information about how undergraduate students perceive mental health resources at the University of Dayton. These results can inform the University of Dayton of student knowledge/access and inform recommendations for improvements for campus mental health programs. Lastly, these findings also tell us about broader issues related to college and mental health such as stress levels, how students think about resources, and stigma attached to mental health.
Angry Tweets and Interest Groups
Twitter is where much of the communication concerning politics happens. But little research has been done into which tweets are most successful at getting likes, retweets, and replies. Through a content analysis of more than 2,000 tweets from two pairs of diametrically opposed interest groups, this research aims to answer if tweets that include argumentative, or disagreeable, language receive more likes, retweets, and replies than tweets without argumentative language. The tweets were collected over a two-month period leading up to the 2018 Midterm elections, which includes the Brett Kavanaugh confirmation hearings. The statistically significant data suggest that tweets with argumentative language do receive more public feedback than tweets without it.
Antimicrobial Activity of Soil Isolates
Madyson Jean Myers
Antibiotics are used around the world to treat a variety of bacterial infections and diseases. Due to this wide usage, bacteria have built up antibiotic resistance that has caused many antibiotics to be an ineffective form of treatment. As more bacteria become resistant to common antibiotics, there is a rising demand for research in this field, and a need for the production of new and effective antibiotics. Antibiotics can be produced synthetically, but they may also be isolated from bacteria colonies displaying antimicrobial activities. When placed in an environment that has limited resources or where a pathogen is present, bacteria will produce antimicrobials in order to combat infection or fight off competition. In correlation with the Small World Initiative, the goal of this research is to observe bacteria isolates from soil samples and determine if any isolates display antimicrobial activities and if those antimicrobials can be extracted from the bacteria. Bacteria will be isolated from soil on UD property and reduced to pure cultures. Antimicrobial activities will be indicated through zones of inhibition produced in the presence of clinically relevant pathogens such as Escherichia coli, and Staphylococcus epidermis. Bacteria that exhibit antimicrobial activity will be identified through further examination using a series of biochemical tests including gram staining, and catalase testing etc.. Identifying bacteria exhibiting antimicrobial activity is necessary to combat rising antibiotic resistance and in developing new antibiotics.
Application of International Human Rights & the Sustainable Development Goals to Dayton, OH
Emily Rose Shanahan
To become a Human Rights City, Dayton must align its laws and policies with human rights principles. The Sustainable Development Goals provides a thorough and concise outline of these principles. We have researched local issues, aligned them to each SDG and target, and connected them to the appropriate international human rights documents. Through this process, we have learned to localize international human rights documents and articles, become more connected through our community through a unique and meaningful lens, and gained a greater understanding of the utility of the SDGs. Hopefully, this research has laid the groundwork to mobilize Dayton to become a Human Rights City.
Application of Sustainable Development Goals to Dayton: Sustainable Cities and Communities
Jasmine H. Riechmann
Greater awareness of local issues: I am from Cincinnati, and we see many of the same issues, however I feel like the Dayton community is working more towards becoming a Human Rights City.
Global connections: Many cities have the same problems as Dayton, and we can learn from their mistakes and what has worked for them.
Application of international human rights: Human Rights do not just have to do with law, they also have involve a good quality life, which includes a safe, healthy, and adequate living situation and environment.
a safe haven online: Reddit [and its] framing [of] single fatherhood
This study investigates the framing of single fatherhood on online message boards. Current research illustrates a disproportion in parenting for single fathers, in comparison to the research done on single mothers. Due to the disproportion, there are various conversations that surround how single-father relationships are being talked about. I use content analysis to research how single-fathers use online message boards such as Reddit as support while raising their daughters. Narrowing to eleven online threads allowed me to appropriately record trends in the comments that were in regard to single fatherhood. My findings reveal that single fathers use Reddit as a source of support while raising their daughters, they ask challenging questions and receive a variety of responses and opinions. My findings also demonstrate that the dominant discourses on this platform are that there are in fact expectations of single fathers, discussion on how they navigate the daughter’s transition into puberty, and the general stereotypes of single fathers.
A Sex-Dependent Neurochemical Endophenotype Underlies Behavioral Alterations Induced by High-Fat Diet in Mice
John Richard Coffey, Patrick Robert Flaherty, Ben Klocke, Sean Anthony Koeller, Madison C. Schulze, Connor F. Thelen
Obesity is one of the most prevalent diseases, with a prevalence of over 42% according to the CDC. It is also known that obesity is associated with an increased risk for depression, however the precise mechanisms linking these disorders remain elusive. Further, depression is known to manifest itself differently in the two sexes. Unfortunately, preclinical research on the neurobiology of depression is conducted primarily in male rodents. Thus, understanding the sex-dependent mechanisms of obesity-induced depression is a critical understudied area of research. In the context of the current project, we investigated the sex-dependent response of mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD) to induce obesity. Our results show that male and female mice fed a HFD exhibit distinct depressive-like behavioral profiles. Moreover, sex-dependent neuromolecular mechanisms possibly underlie this response, as assessed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and western blotting. Interestingly, we found that the glutamatergic and serotonergic systems are differentially altered in key brain regions known to be affected in major depression. These data suggest a sex-dependent depressive-like behavioral phenotype is established in obese mice, and that this response is due to sex-differentiated neurochemical endophenotypes. Overall, these data are critically important in understanding the sex-dependent mechanisms of obesity-induced depression in males and females.
A Sibling Comparison Study of the Effects of Parenting Behaviors on Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Problems
John Paul Leibold
Previous research has suggested that Attention-deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a highly heritable disorder, however, recent evidence suggests that there may be complex gene and environment (GxE) interactions contributing to the onset of ADHD. A large number of studies have found that various social-environmental factors may influence the onset of ADHD. Specifically, parental factors such as parental harshness, parental responsiveness, and parental learning stimulation have been implicated in previous ADHD research. The analytical models of previous studies on parents’ and children’s behavior have been unable to control for genetic factors, leading to an inability to infer causal links between variables. Thus any previous evidence suggesting a link between parenting factors and child outcomes may be due to underlying genetic variables or co-occurring environmental risk factors. This study used a sibling comparison model to control for gene and environment confounds while looking at the relationship between parenting behaviors and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Problems (ADHP). The project investigated various parenting factors and children’s behaviors using a sample from The National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, 1979 (NLSY79). Parenting behaviors from the NLSY79 were evaluated through a short form HOME Inventory, while child behavior was evaluated through Behavior Problems Index (BPI) filled out by the mother. An association between learning stimulation and ADHP was found even after controlling for measured and unmeasured family background characteristics and previous ADHP. These results make it harder to rule out a causal link between parental learning stimulation and ADHP. Results from this study suggest future research on parenting and ADHD could help create a better understanding of how parenting affects children’s behavior.
A Spectroscopic Study of Photoswitching and Non-Photoswitching Azobenzene Derivatives in the Formation of Dynamic Aggregates
Aaron Michael Day
Molecular photo-switches find use in many different applications including the design of molecular machines, controlling liquid crystal orientation and photo-pharmacology to control the activity of drugs. Azobenzene is a well-known molecular photo-switch and its derivatives have been shown to aggregate into structures that are able to maintain their dynamic photoswitching capabilities. The capability of forming dynamic aggregates can be applied to many derivatives of azobenzene, however, few have been investigated. In this work, spectroscopic methods have been implemented to categorize, analyze and describe the behavior of the many aggregates that these derivatives can form alone or with each other. Through the application of these methods, Azobenzene-4,4’-dicarboxylic acid (ADA) and 4-dimethylaminoazobenzene-4’-carboxylic acid (M0423) were examined spectroscopically and found to undergo the onset of both homo- and hetero-aggregation at a pH of 5. UV-Vis spectroscopy confirmed that these molecular photo-switches formed H-aggregates with the highest order at a ratio of 2:1 M0423 to ADA. An additional photo-switch, Azobenzene-3,3’-dicarboxylic acid (A1598), was evaluated similarly and, when paired with M0423, also showed the formation of aggregates at a pH of 5 at a ratio of 2:1 M0423 to A1598. Aggregation was analyzed with CD spectroscopy, which showed high signals indicating a higher level of chirality and thus ordered aggregation. A blue shift was observed for this pairing, showing a tendency for H-aggregate geometry.
Assessing the Effect of Neuronal Calcium Dyshomeostasis on Sleep Using a Transgenic Mouse Model
Sleep is an important of our daily routine; in fact, humans spend 1/3 of their day sleeping. Indeed, sleep is pivotal for neuronal survival and function, including learning and memory, by mediating the conversion of newly acquired information during wakefulness into long-term memory. In mammals, there are two states of sleep; the dream-occurring rapid eye-movement (REM) sleep, and the deep-sleep state, namely non-rapid eye-movement (NREM) sleep. These two states cyclically alternate during sleep, creating a distinct pattern. Notably, it is thought that the interaction of neuronal calcium (Ca2+) and potassium (K+) currents in the thalamus gives rise to the oscillations that generate the sleep spindles that promote NREM sleep. Considering that a constellation of intricate molecular pathways is involved in sleep regulation, disruption in any of these processes could elicit sleep deficits, which are typically observed in different neuropsychiatric disorders, including ADHD, schizophrenia, and autistic spectrum disorders. Despite the vast investigation on sleep architecture and its components, the neurobiology of sleep is not completely defined yet, and it remains a hot topic for debate among neuroscientists. Our group has identified a novel Ca2+-regulating protein expressed in the brain and we are demonstrating for the first time its implication in regulating sleep, using a gentically modified mouse strain. In the context of this presentation we will demonstrate overwhelming data derived from state-of-the-art electroencephalography (EEG)-based polysomnography, to support the pivotal role of this novel protein in the neurobiology of sleep.
Assessing the Effects of Acute Pharmacological Modulation of SERCA on Mouse Behavior
Aikaterini Britzolaki, Claire C. Cronin, Nikolas A. Destephano, Patrick Robert Flaherty, Lesli Elizabeth Freetage, Charles Edward Hauff, Ben Klocke, Riely Legiralde Rufo
Calcium (Ca2+) ions are potent regulators of cell fate, as they carry essential information for survival and function. Neuronal cells are no exception to this; Ca2+ is critical for neuronal cell function and survival and intrinsic Ca2+-cycling aberrations have a detrimental effect on cell fate, long-term potentiation (LTP), learning and memory. Subsequently, Ca2+-signaling dysregulation is associated with a wide range of debilitating neurological disorders, of which the underlying mechanisms are yet unclear. It is well established that Ca2+-distribution in the cell is regulated by the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), and that the major regulator of Ca2+ influx into the ER is the sarco-/endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ ATPase (SERCA). Indeed, comprehensive studies have associated SERCA dysregulation with severe brain disorders, such as Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and cerebral ischemia. Interestingly, SERCA activation has recently been proposed as potential therapeutic target to treat some of these debilitating disorders. Hence, in the current preliminary study, conducted in the context of the "Neurobiology Laboratory" course (BIO415L; Fall 2019), we assessed the acute pharmacological effects of a SERCA-modulating agent on mouse behavior by using well-established mouse paradigms.
Assessing the Efficacy of Seedling Planting as a Forest Restoration Technique in Temperate Hardwood Forests Impacted by Invasive Species
Michaela Jean Woods
The emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire; EAB) is an invasive insect that causes mortality of trees in the genus Fraxinus, creating canopy gaps that may facilitate invasion by exotic plants. Planting native tree seedlings under EAB-infested Fraxinus may accelerate succession and preclude invasive plant expansion; however, the effectiveness of this approach has not been experimentally tested. We assessed understory seedling planting of Quercus rubra, Carya laciniosa, and Juglans cinerea in EAB-infested forests, where the invasive shrub Lonicera maackii (Amur honeysuckle) was removed. We tested whether the use of plastic tree shelters (“tree tubes”) or planting season (fall versus spring) contributed to the success of the reforestation plan by measuring growth rates (cm/yr) and survivorship two and seven years after planting. After seven years, seedling survivorship was < 25% for all species and planting techniques. Quercus rubra exhibited poor survivorship with one seedling surviving to the conclusion of the experiment. Juglans cinerea and C. laciniosa had higher survivability and growth rates than did Q. rubra after two and seven years. Effects of tree tubes were weak and temporary. After 2 years, Q. rubra seedling survivorship was higher in tree tubes; however, by the end of the experiment 29 of the 30 Q. rubra seedlings in tree tubes had died.Juglans cinerea seedlings grew faster when planted in the fall compared to the spring, but overall survivorship of these seedlings was unaffected by planting season. Neither the use of tree shelters nor the planting season contributed to the growth or survival of C. laciniosa seedlings. In summary, our results indicate that seedling planting of Carya and Juglans may be a useful way to increase biodiversity in regenerating forests; however, the resource-expensive processes of over-wintering seedlings and using tree shelters may not increase the success of reforestation efforts.
Associations Between Decision Making and Hedonic Response to Odor
Madison Elaine Degnan
Associations Between Decision Making and Hedonic Response to Odor Background: The Limbic system supports many functions including emotion, behavior, motivation, decision-making, long-term memory, and olfaction. The olfactory bulb is connected to the amygdala and the hippocampus. The purpose of this study was to examine associations between pleasantness and unpleasantness ratings of odors and decision-making during a virtual gambling task. Methods: Undergraduate students (N=100) from a midsize private Midwestern university participated in the study for course research credit. They underwent tests of odor threshold detection, odor identification, and ratings of odor pleasantness and unpleasantness using the Sniffin' Sticks Test battery. They also completed the Iowa Gambling Task-II (IGT-II), a computerized task that assesses decision-making while gambling to earn fake money. The task utilizes four card different card decks: A) low-risk, low-reward, B) high-risk, low-reward, C) low-risk, high-reward, and D) high-risk, high-reward. Results: Total money earned on the IGT-II was associated with lower unpleasant odor ratings across all odors (r = -0.332 , p = 0.017). Number of draws from the high risk and low reward deck (r = 0.368, p = 0.008) was correlated with higher total unpleasantness ratings across all odors. Net total (r = -0.238, p = 0.093), draws from the high risk and high reward (r = 0.133, p = 0.352), low risk and high reward C (rho = 0.040, p = 0.781), and low risk low reward (r = -0.143, p = 0.317) were not significantly correlated with unpleasantness ratings across all odors. Conclusion: Poor decision-making was related to higher ratings of unpleasant odors, suggesting that those who reported more odors as unpleasant, were experiencing negative emotions in the prefrontal cortex, which inhibited decision-making. Participants who won more money reported lower ratings of total unpleasantness, suggesting that participants who rated more odors as pleasant were experiencing positive emotions in the prefrontal cortex, which facilitated decision making.
A trial of fire and ice: experimental assessment of novel ecological restoration techniques in midwestern prairies invaded by Pyrus calleryana
Callery pear (Pyrus calleryana) is an invasive plant that threatens ecosystems across the American Midwest. Callery pear can disperse over long distances, grow rapidly, is tolerant of a variety of soil conditions, and outcompetes most native plants. Invasion of Callery pear into prairie ecosystems is a particularly difficult management challenge. The overarching objective of this project is to experimentally test control methods for this species to allow scientifically supported land management practices. In particular, I will test the efficacy of prescribed fire, cutting, herbicide and a novel treatment- freezing with liquid nitrogen. The idea of freezing as a treatment is untested in the scientific literature; however, may be an effective technique given that this species is cold sensitive and liquid nitrogen is inexpensive and relatively easy to apply. Shiloh Conservation Area is located near Dayton, Ohio, USA and is a recently restored prairie that was used for agriculture for over 50 years prior. We marked and measured the diameter of 100 Callery pear trees that were cut with a mower 1 year ago. These resprouting pear tree stumps were randomly assigned to one of five treatments: no treatment (negative control, n = 20), cut only (control, n = 20), experimental burning (n = 20), freezing (0.5 L of liquid nitrogen application, n = 20), and herbicide (50% glyphosate solution, n = 20). All treatments were applied in September of 2019. After 6 weeks, we evaluated which trees had begun resprouting. In March of 2020, we will re-measure which trees have begun resprouting. In fall 2020, almost 100% of the trees treated with fire began resprouting. 40% of the trees treated with liquid nitrogen began resprouting and none of the trees treated with herbicide resprouted. We will conduct this experiment again this spring and analyze results in fall of 2021.
Attending to the Small Happenings: Rhizomatic Research in Art Education
Abby Sheahan, Indigo Hudepohl, Ria Gordon
Tenacious triad of Senior Art Education students share their research with YOU! Learn how empathy, gestural dancing, roots, identity, plateaus, movements, journals, cat’s cradle, and comics all share one space within Art Education through this visual and interactive presentation.
Best Practices for Lesson Planning
Across America, primary and secondary educators are limited to the resources and time they have available to design captivating, valuable lessons that are best practices for students. Educators are able to plan lessons that are beneficial to students but due to the lack of available assets, there is missed potential in the lesson design. This is especially true for a science classroom which has the capability to engage students to analyze and solve real-world problems in the scope of a scientist through inquiry-based learning. This project focused on developing a unit for a high school biology class that adds value and potential to the content where the time and resources are limited for the educators. The unit followed the 5E Learning Cycle and was carefully designed by deconstructing the state standards which were then broken down into student friendly language. After designing and executing a unit on sex-linked traits, inheritance patterns and pedigree analysis, data was collected to evaluate the progression of student learning through the entirety of the unit. Each section of the lesson plan as well as execution and assessment of the unit has been carefully thought out and analyzed to ensure the opportunity for student success was measurable. Lessons that are designed with the availability of resources and time can improve the learning environment for all students.
Best Predictors of Player's Goals in Soccer
The purpose of this project is to see what offensive statistics are best for predicting a soccer player’s future goals using the 2017-18, 2018-19, and 2019-20 (as of 3/9) seasons’ data. The regressors (variables) tried in this project that could affect goals (dependent variable) were shots, shots on goal, expected goals, minutes (total playing time), games (number of appearances), position, team, player, and league. The data was collected from Football (soccer) reference (fbref.com) and analyzed using the Statistical Analysis System (SAS). A model predicting the response variable (goals) in terms of some significant regressors was obtained.
Big Men on the Small Screen: Masculinities, Catholicism, and Television in the Early Twenty-First Century
Derek L. Hostetter
This essay will analyze popular television programming in the early twenty-first century, focusing particularly on the representation of men within Catholic families. The primary shows in view will be The Sopranos, Ray Donovan, and Blue Bloods. As a necessary first step, I will explain how the historical and cultural conditions of the two decades preceding the twenty-first century made possible the new representations of masculinity portrayed on such shows. Likewise, I will also explain the conditions which made the portrayals of Catholic families on such shows possible. After the historical and cultural groundwork has been laid, I will provide a close reading of key scenes from the television shows themselves. Ultimately, I will utilize Elijah Siegler’s typology of priestly, prophetic, and rabbinic to demonstrate how these television shows offer three distinct models for Catholic engagement with masculinity. I will show how the Catholicism in The Sopranos serves to maintain the status quo with regard to the masculinity that is portrayed, and thus, offers the priestly model. The titular character in Ray Donovan, on the other hand, is confronted with the need to radically reorient his and his family’s lives after committing himself to his Catholic faith, and thus, offers the prophetic model. The show Blue Bloods presents Catholicism as an assumed part of everyday life and as an important subject in family discussion, and thus, offers the rabbinic model. In short, I aim to provide a long overdue analysis of what one of the most important features of American culture – television – tells us about the intersection of family life and religion, particularly with regard to the men in those religious families.
Bringing an End to Violence in Dayton, Ohio
Most of the SDGs are connected. One cannot improve without the other. In order to bring an end to violence in Dayton, one needs to solve the issues within poverty and education before an end to violence can happen. Those issues are driving forces for violence. Institutions have power, power to make an impact on many people. I have learned Dayton has a lot of resources to help people but not many are aware of them. Educating people on resources as well as giving people hope, showing they do not have to live the way they grow up is huge. Dayton tries, but there is still a lot to be done. An end to violence is a far away goal, but lessening violence is more feasible as a short-term goal. Everyone deserves to live a safe and happy life without worrying about what atrocity might happen next. Dayton can be the leader in reforming itself into a human rights city, just as Ohio has led the fight against COVID-19.