Mustafa Mukhtar



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This poster summarizes the results of a series of ongoing experimental investigations into the curing reactions between a novel phosphorus flame retardant (FR) and epoxy resin. Epoxy resins are used in society in a wide variety of industrial applications including aerospace, infrastructure, transportation, electronic, marine, and sporting goods industries. The novel flame retardant was synthesized and provided by UD Chemistry Department faculty. The FR includes both primary and/or secondary amine functional groups which allow it to potentially react with the epoxy resin through covalent bonding. Previous work involved examination of several similar flame retardants which showed good results in terms of curing behavior and flammability properties. Despite these results, scale-up of the formulations from small scale (~ 1 gram) to a larger scale (10s of grams) led to unexpected results, for example, the generation of gas bubbles during cure which was not observed in the initial small scale studies. In response, a series of experimental mixing formulations and curing conditions were investigated to provide further insight. Curing conditions were characterized by various physical and thermal properties using Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA) and Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC). In the current study, we will try to overcome some of these problems that were experienced in the previous study in order to make controlled samples for further flammability testing.

Publication Date


Project Designation

Graduate Research

Primary Advisor

Vladimir A. Benin, Donald A. Klosterman, Alexander B. Morgan

Primary Advisor's Department

Chemical Engineering


Stander Symposium project

Characterization of Novel Phosphorus-Based Flame Retardants in Epoxy Resins