Emily H. Budde



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Understanding the roles of superordinate identities (SI) and superordinate goals (SG) in producing outgroup liking and reducing aggression, allows us to compare the common ingroup identity model and the ingroup favoring norm to understand intergroup conflict. SI suggests the need for an overarching identity that includes the ingroup and the outgroup. SG suggests the need for cooperative interdependence in which the groups are working toward the same goals. The study compared the use of these constructs to determine if one or both was most effective for establishing outgroup liking and low behavioral aggression, by exploring the creation of one group or two groups and cooperation or competition. Three participants were told that they were either a part of a larger "Group A" that includes three more members in another room or a part of a smaller "Group A" with another smaller "Group B" in another room. The group members were then told they would either be working cooperatively or competitively with the other group on an anagram task. Participants completed a behavioral measure of aggression and several questionnaires. Data from 132 (13 groups per cell) University of Dayton undergraduate students was collected. It was hypothesized that SG, SI, and the interaction of the two would establish high liking and low aggression. There was no interaction of superordinate goals by superordinate identities on outgroup liking and behavioral aggression. There was a main effect of superordinate goals on outgroup liking, F(1,125) = 8.22, p = .005, partial η2 = .06, and behavioral aggression, F(1,128) = 46.24, p < .001, partial η2 = .27. There were no main effects of superordinate identities. The results suggest that superordinate goals alone produce the highest outgroup liking and lowest behavioral aggression. Therefore, establishing cooperative interdependence between groups could help promote peace and prevent conflict in real world settings.

Publication Date


Project Designation

Graduate Research

Primary Advisor

Matthew Matthew Montoya

Primary Advisor's Department



Stander Symposium project, College of Arts and Sciences

United Nations Sustainable Development Goals

Peace, Justice, and Strong Institutions; Reduced Inequalities

The Effects of Superordinate Goals and Superordinate Identities on Outgroup Liking and Aggression