Frances D. Albanese



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Noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) is the second most common form of hearing loss, affecting millions of Americans. Although there are required noise level regulations set for adults in the workplace, there are no such guidelines set for children, who are also subject to hearing loss, and potentially listening to iPods and MP3 players at harmful volumes. The Health Belief Model (HBM), which helps researchers understand the reasons for harmful behaviors, has been used to predict listening behavior in adults and children. Eighty-four participants aged 9-12 years old from Incarnation Elementary listened to a song on an iPod and answered questions regarding their desire and tendency to take risks and their listening habits. They also completed a Listening Habits Questionnaire that related the five subscales of the HBM to their beliefs about NIHL. Actual Chosen Listening Levels (CLLs) were determined from the iPod using a sound-level meter and compared with the Global Risk Taking Assessment and HBM scores. Although the Global Risk Taking Assessment is not a significant indicator of CLLs, the Health Belief Model does significantly predict CLLs. This research helps us understand the potential harm caused by listening at high volumes, as well as possible underlying reasons for this behavior.

Publication Date


Project Designation

Honors Thesis

Primary Advisor

Keri J. Kirschman

Primary Advisor's Department



Stander Symposium project

Health Belief Model and Risk-Seeking Behavior as Indicators of Chosen Listening Levels of Youth