Ismail Salem Alibrahim



Download Project (95.7 MB)


Bisphenol-A (BPA) and its analogues (BPs) are diphenylmethane derivatives with two hydroxyl groups on aromatic rings. About 3.5 million tons of BPA is produced annually for its usage in many applications such as a monomer primarily to synthesis polycarbonate plastic and epoxy resins and in the thermal receipt papers. BPs can be transported to water bodies through several routes such as degradable plastics, products manufactured with BPs, and after wastewater treatment. For example, the BPA levels in sewage sludge was found to measure between 0.5 and 5.1 mg/mL after wastewater treatment. BPs act as endocrine-disrupting chemical (EDC). United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) banned the use of BPA in baby bottles in 2012. One feasible replacement of BPA is Bisphenol S (BPS). BPS, 4,4’-sulphonyl diphenol, was found to have a lesser impact on the endocrine activities and poses lower aquatic toxicity than BPA. Since the substitution of BPS for BPA in products and materials is a recent occurrence, there are still only a few studies investigating the impact of BPS on human health. However, some studies already suggested that BPS poses a human health and environmental contamination risk as well. Since concern has started to grow, methods of water treatment for BPs, such as adsorption processes, have been developed. This study investigated the performance Graphene oxide (GO) and reduced graphene oxide (rGO) to adsorb BPS from water at low concentration (~10 PPM). The GO synthesized by different methods (GO prepared by Hummer method and by newly developed method) shows a maximum percentage removal of BPS from water between 30% to 60%. On the other hand, reducing the GO by ascorbic acid increases the sorption capacity of the rGO to up to

Publication Date


Project Designation

Graduate Research

Primary Advisor

Kenya M. Crosson, Donald A. Klosterman

Primary Advisor's Department

Chemical and Materials Engineering


Stander Symposium project, School of Engineering

United Nations Sustainable Development Goals

Clean Water and Sanitation

Graphene Development for Removal of Bisphenol-S from Water