Mustafa Mukhtar


Presentation: 10:45 a.m.-12:00 p.m., Kennedy Union Ballroom



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This study aims to determine the initial performance of a novel phosphorus-containing epoxy monomer that could be incorporated into conventional epoxy (DGEBA) formulations to produce high-performance carbon fiber epoxy composites with little or no compromise in processing, treatment, and mechanical characteristics. This poster outlines the results of an experimental study on a novel phosphorus-based flame retardant (Phosphorus-Diglycidyl Ether of Bisphenol A) (P-DGEBA), which was synthesized at U.D. and then blended into a traditional epoxy-amine resin formulation. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) was used to evaluate the curing behavior of P-DGEBA with epoxy resin. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) was also used to investigate the thermal stability and thermal degradation behaviors of the P-DGEBA/DGEBA blends. The micro-combustion calorimeter (MCC) test results confirmed that 50% P-DGEBA was the optimal percentage for balancing the performance (low heat release, high char yield) and minimizing the use of the available material, which was in scarce supply. Next, a composite fabrication technique was developed to incorporate the P-DGEBA into woven carbon fiber laminates with minimal waste of the synthesized monomer. The panel fabrication approach successfully produced panels using the autoclave technique that meets aerospace quality specifications with a Vf of around 0.5, which is an acceptable result for a panel manufactured to form a woven carbon fabric. The findings of dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) on composite coupons showed that the Tg of the baseline panel was 72 °C, while the Tg of P-DGEBA-containing panels was about 78 °C. According to Cone calorimeter results, P-DGEBA produced less heat while increasing smoke generation and lowering the effective heat of combustion. Interestingly, the inclusion of P-DGEBA in DGEBA resin composites reduced their flammability by up to 28% without degrading their mechanical qualities by raising the mixture's glass transition temperature.

Publication Date


Project Designation

Graduate Research

Primary Advisor

Donald A. Klosterman, Alexander B. Morgan

Primary Advisor's Department

Chemical and Materials Engineering


Stander Symposium project, School of Engineering

United Nations Sustainable Development Goals

Industry, Innovation, and Infrastructure

Novel Phosphorus-Based Flame Retardant for High-Performance Carbon Fiber Reinforced Composites