Emily McCarty



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Self-efficacy establishes a relationship between people and their goal-directed behavior. The relationship helps determine whether people will initiate the behavior and how long they will persist in performing the behavior. Specific types of self-efficacy are preparatory self-efficacy in relation to a certain task, (i.e., that is, self-perception of anticipated ability in successfully completing a task) and performance self-efficacy regarding that task. Specifically, the present study examined these two types of self-efficacy in response to the performance on spatial tasks that assessed the ability to take different perspectives and picture the movement of objects in space. Participants were given preparatory, performance, and general self-efficacy questionnaires and two spatial tasks to test the research questions about self-efficacy. They were broken into two groups, a group who believed that they were in competition with other participants and a group who did not believe they were in competition. Results are hypothesized to show a difference in preparatory and performance self-efficacy between participants who believe they are in competition and those who do not. Specifically, for those participants who believe that they are in competition, there will be a difference between preparatory and performance self-efficacy after, but not before the spatial tasks. On the other hand, for those who do not believe that they are in competition, there will be no difference in preparatory and performance self-efficacy before and after the spatial task. Results are also hypothesized to show a gender difference, where male participants will report greater self-efficacy than female participants (as evidenced by the general, preparatory, and performance self-efficacy questionnaires).

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Graduate Research

Primary Advisor

Susan Davis

Primary Advisor's Department



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Preparatory and Performance Self-Efficacy in Athletes