Vet A Smelko



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Masculinity is a social construct that allows all men to use their manliness as status symbol. Often times, men who have a narrow definition of masculinity will see it as a competition where they must conform to societal norms of traditional manliness in order to prove their worth among their peers, teammates, or other men in general. In turn, this does not allow many men to develop a genuine and authentic sense of self. This study was distributed to the entire varsity football, which consist of 96 players ranging from freshman to fifth year seniors. Using quantitative data from the Conformity to Masculine Norms Inventory, this study illustrates that the rate of conformity to masculine norms among college football players at a Division 1 non-scholarship, religiously affiliated institution. The conformity is based upon a player’s prior socialization experiences, athletic identity, and their ability to make meaning within a college environment. The data represented show that as a whole, college football players at the division one non-scholarship level have a high rate of conformity in regards to traditional forms of masculinity. Specifically the data show the highest ratings of conformity among college football players who have a defensive position, and are first or second year student-athletes.

Publication Date


Project Designation

Graduate Research

Primary Advisor

Molly A. Schaller

Primary Advisor's Department

Counselor Education and Human Services


Stander Symposium poster

Get in the Box: The Impact of Male Socialization and its Relation to Conformity Among College Football Players