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Mnemonic devices have been proven to be extremely effective methods for learning and subsequent retention of information. In recent years, as our country becomes more multi-cultural and the need for bilingualism increases, mnemonic devices have been increasingly utilized in foreign language learning. One of the most effective mnemonic devices being used in this way is the keyword method. The keyword method uses paired-associate learning and visual imagery to more strongly encode the English and foreign word pairs (Raugh & Atkinson, 1975). Recent research has shown the effectiveness of visual imagery increases when there is an interaction shown between the paired words (Crutcher, 1990). However, there have not been any sufficient investigations into what aspect of the inter- active visual imagery makes it so effective for learning and retention. This study sought to answer this question by investigating the nature of the interactions used to relate the English translation and keyword mediator pair.

Publication Date


Project Designation

Honors Thesis

Primary Advisor

Robert J Crutcher

Primary Advisor's Department



Stander Symposium poster

The Effectiveness of Active Interaction in Interactive Visual Imagery as Created by the Keyword Method