We examine the acceleration of a robotic arm calibration algorithm using a general purpose GPU (GPGPU). The algorithm utilized requires a radial basis function neural network for calibration and takes approximately 9 days to run on a standard desktop computer. The most time consuming component of this algorithm is a matrix inversion operation. This is carried out on an NVIDIA GPGPU using the Cholesky Factorization. On an NVIDIA Tesla S1070 GPGPU, this same algorithm ran about 300 times faster than a standard desktop computer running an optimized version of the code.
Rebecca A. Olinsky
The purpose of this research was to gain an understanding of parent/guardian views on literacy and to gain information on how high quality after-school programs can impact literacy development. After-school programs and facilities can have a positive impact on children who attend on a daily basis. This research project utilized focus groups at a high quality after-school facility, Adventure Central in Dayton, to learn more about the needs and desires that the parents would want. The focus groups consisted of parents who have children attending the community based program two times per week. The after-school facility is a partnership with Ohio State University Extension, 4-H, and Five Rivers MetroParks. The focus is positive youth development and utilizing nature and science to enhance young childrenâs lives.
Brandon M. Capicotto and Ryan D. Hunn
The purpose of this study is to determine the odds or probability that an S&P 500 sector will have positive returns when the market has positive returns. Using monthly data for the ten S&P 500 sectors and the S&P 500, a linear probability model was developed for three time periods: (1) the complete 2005-2010 period, (2) the market downswing period, 12-31-07 to 3-31-09 and (3) the market upswing period, 3-31-09 to 12-31-10. For each of the periods we also calculated the average positive return for each sector. Using 2011 as the forecasting period based on the number of months of positive returns for the S&P 500 in 2011, we estimate the number of positive returns and the average expected return for each sector. Because 2011 has very distinct upswing and downswing periods, we develop our forecast estimate for these periods using the probability outcomes for the upswing and downswing periods sited above. The estimates are then matched against actual results in 2011. Results are forthcoming
Object motion causes spatially varying blur. Estimating such a type of blur from a single image is an ill-posed problem that is difficult to solve. In this paper, we introduce the notion of double discrete wavelet transform (DDWT) designed to sparsify the blurred image and blur kernel simultaneously. Based on DDWT analysis, we are able to accurately estimate motion blur kernels and recover the latent sharp image. The blind image deblurring solution proposed here handles spatially varying motion blurs effectively and efficiently.
An Analysis of Excess Stock Returns and Fat Tail Distributions for Flyer Fund Stocks in the Volatile Market Period of 2007 - 2011
George S. Cressy, Conor Flynn, and Corey R. Pryor
Using twenty stocks from the Flyer Fund with equal representations for all ten S&P 500 sectors, an analysis was made to determine whether stocks had positive or negative excess returns over the period 2007-2010. Excess kurtosis (EK), a statistical measure for fat tail distributions was then calculated for the 20 stocks based on the excess return data. Using each stock's EK as the independent variable and 2011 stock returns as the dependent variable a cross sectional regression will be run to measure the impact of EK on stock price change. Results are forth coming.
An analysis of idiosyncratic risk and flyer fund performance in thr highly volatile market period 2007-2011
Michael L. Hermes, Erica M. Kleinman, and Kevin P. Schrik
The purpose of this study is to determine for a select group of Flyer Fund stocks (20 stocks) the impact of idiosyncratic risk on stock performance using regression analysis. Monthly stock returns are regressed on S&P 500 market returns for the period 2007-2010. The standard deviation of the residuals are a proxy for idiosyncratic risk and can be used to forecast future stock returns. A cross sectional regression analysis using 2011 stock returns as the dependent variable and idiosyncratic risk and beta as the independent variables was run for the 20 stocks. The results indicate that both idiosyncratic risk and beta contribute meaningfully as predictors of stock performance in 2011.
An Analysis of the Returns to High Quality Mega Cap Stocks in Volatile Markets: 2008-2011 as a Case Study
Linh D. Pham
The purposes of this study is to examine the impact on high quality mega cap stocks of four factors: (1) Profitability, (2) Financial Leverage, (3) Liquidity and (4) Operating Efficiency. The period of analysis is 2008-2011, a highly volatile period in the market. Annual returns for mega cap stocks are calculated for the period 2008-2011. Metrics for the above 4 factors are also calculated for the same period. Cross-sectional regressions are run by year with returns as the dependent variable and profitability, leverage, liquidity and operating efficiency the independent variables. Results are forthcoming.
Torrie L. Caufield and Angela M. Evanko
To our knowledge, there has not been any research regarding the relationship between anxious attachment, silencing of the self, and relationship satisfaction. Over the years numerous studies have conducted experiments regarding anxious attachment and relationship satisfaction. Several have indicated anxious attachment is responsible for low felt security, which occurs when these individuals are insecure about losing acceptance from their partner (Joel, Macdonald, & Shimotomai 2011; Shaver, Schachner, & Mikulincer, 2005; Tucker & Anders, 1999). In fact, as a product of their high anxiety levels, anxiously attached individuals are more prone to emotional highs and lows, which can predict greater conflict severity and relationship dissatisfaction (Campbell, Simpson, Boldry, & Kashy, 2005). These characteristics of anxiously attached individuals can lead to silencing the self, the expectation of failure or rejection in a romantic relationship. In order to maintain a relationship without arguments, individuals have been found to stop expressing and forgetting their feelings of dissatisfaction (Whiffen, Foot, & Thompson, 2007). Individuals can strive to create stability in their relationship resulting in silencing of the self, which actually produces negative effects on relationship satisfaction (Jack & Dill, 1992). Based on the findings of the above-mentioned research, we predicted that silencing of the self would mediate the relationship between anxious attachment and relationship satisfaction. Participants (N=209; M= 110, F= 99) completed self-report questionnaires that measure silencing the self, insecure attachment, and relationship satisfaction. Results confirmed our hypothesis: silencing the self was found to mediate the relationship between level of insecure attachment and relationship satisfaction. Specifically, higher levels of insecure attachment were predictive of higher levels of silencing of the self, which, in turn, were predictive of lower levels of relationship satisfaction. Limitations, future directions, and implications of the study will be discussed.
A Pilot Study of the Effect of an Acute Vestibular Therapy on Postural Stability, Gait Variability, and Gaze Patterns of Children with ASD
Senia I. Smoot
Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) struggle with sensory regulation, resulting in decreased motor control, unusual gaze patterns, and decreased postural stability. Sensory integration therapy is a common therapy used to help children with ASD with these issues, however, there is insufficient quantitative research concerning the actual results of sensory integration therapy with respect to human biomechanics. It is the objective of this study to quantify the acute effects of a vestibular treatment on postural stability, gait variability, and gaze patterns. Nine children with ASD and three neurotypical controls will participate in this pilot study. Three subjects with ASD will have their step width variability and other gait parameters recorded using wearable inertial measurement units while walking an indoor path. Three subjects with ASD will have their center of pressure (COP) and sway area will be collected by standing on a balance plate under a variety of conditions. Gaze and fixation markers of three subjects with ASD will be recorded via eyes tracking equipment while subjects watched a short video. Once these baseline tests are conducted, subjects will undergo a conventional vestibular therapy session on a swing. Subjects will then be respectively retested to gauge any changes in balance, gait, and gaze patterns induced by the therapy session. It is anticipated that the subjects with ASD will display a significant increase (p<.05) in postural stability, a decrease in gait variability, and a decrease in self-regulating gaze patterns after undergoing a vestibular therapy session.
Brian T. Bradley
Genetic programming, a method of developing code using evolutionary principles in a computer simulation, can theoretically be applied to any problem. This work explores the applicability of genetic programming to the generating a human-readable set of rules that could be used to solve the cube. This involved developing a language to describe solutions to the cube as a series of rules, an algorithm to process those rules, and a fitness function to describe how good a possible solution is. Because of the high dimensionality of the problem, the difficulty in creating a good fitness function, and the need to develop both good rules and good solutions simultaneously, the ultimate goal was not achieved. However, through the effort to apply genetic programming to develop a Rubikâs Cube solver, valuable information was gathered on what needs to be done for such an attempt to be successful.
Monica A. Guisfredi
Located near the rainforest, La Paz, Bolivia, has a large amount of waste orange peels currently being left unused that have the potential to become profitable since orange oil, an essential oil that retains the distinctive essence of the original plant, can be extracted from the peel. Essential oils, or concentrated extracts that are derived from a plantâs leaves, roots, blossoms, or other organic materials, have become integrated into society mostly as flavorings and fragrances, but can also be used in other areas such as medicine and aromatherapy. This project investigates past and current processes of essential oil extraction from orange peels, and an appropriate small scale distillation set-up was designed and built that is technologically feasible and sustainable for La Paz, Bolivia.
Robert L. Hengesbach
The purpose of the study was to explore the way in which Resident Assistants make meaning of their first year in the position. Second and Third Year Resident Assistants from different living areas at the University of Dayton were interviewed about their first year as a Resident Assistant. The use of returning Resident Assistants was based on the Subject-Object Shift Theory by Kegan (1994). Each Resident Assistant was asked to reflect on how s/he developed as a person and as a Resident Assistant over their first year. The Resident Assistant position proved to be a developmental experience in the interpersonal, intrapersonal and cognitive dimensions of the students experiencing it. The tools of interview summary and thematic analysis were used to explain the common experience of the participants.
Artificial Neural Networks and Their Use in Process Monitoring and Diagnosis of an Industrial Injection Molding Process
Rebecca L. Greider
This study utilizes a working artificial neural network (ANN) to monitor an industrial injection molding process. This ANN will be able to adapt and learn using training data obtained from the process. Outputs will be classified as normal or not normal based uponannotations made on the data by a plant engineer. This network will be able to recognize patterns in the data it analyzes and will also be able to model complex relationships in the data. The goal is to use the ANN to predict a future unusable part. ANN performance will beevaluated on how far in advance it can reliably predict an unusable part: several parts in the future versus the next one to be produced.
Assessing Growth of Grades Six Through Eight Ohio Music Students and the Effectiveness of their Teachers
Melissa A. Durst
Legislative mandates such as No Child Left Behind and Race to the Top have emphasized an educational paradigm shift- effective teaching is defined by demonstrating student growth within a content area. Data is gathered and analyzed yearly, and now the results can impact teacher evaluations, hiring decisions, or teacher dismissal processes. Standardized testing is one of the most common ways of assessing students. This gives a clear and coherent view of student growth over a specific period of time. There are numerous other means to assess student growth, however, and to achieve the most efficient and effective evaluation, multiple assessments should be considered. Evaluating teacher effectiveness can include classroom observations, portfolios, student surveys, classroom artifacts, and performances. Non-tested subjects, such as music, are also under the same requirements to measure student growth to measure teacher effectiveness. However, there is no national or even state-wide assessment that is currently recognized and accepted for measuring student growth. Music teachers are responsible for teaching âknowledgeâ- a belief or consensus of fact; and âskillsâ- the aptitude for performing a specific task.This thesis specifically examines the following questions:1.How should the growth of music students in grades six through eight in the state of Ohio be effectively assessed?; and2.How should the effectiveness of grades six through eight music teachers in the state of Ohio be determined?Utilizing multiple, standards-based assessments, such as portfolios, performances, observations, and pretest/posttest models, student growth can be effectively and efficiently measured for students in the state of Ohio in grades six through eight. Teacher assessments in the state of Ohio should include evidence of a teacherâs capacity to plan lessons, establish a healthy learning environment, utilize best teaching practices, and create and maintain opportunities for professional growth.
A Synthesis of finite difference methods and the jump process arising in the pricing of Contingent Claim
It is demonstrated that approximation of the solution of the Black-Scholes partial differential equation by using a finite difference method is equivalent to approximating the diffusion process by a jump process and therefore the finite difference approximation is a type of numerical integration. In particular, we establish that the explicit finite difference approximation is equivalent to approximating to diffusion process by a jump process, initially introduced by Cox and Ross, while the implicit finite difference approximation amounts to approximating the diffusion process by a more general type of jump process. This work has been introduced by Brennan and Schwartz, The Journal of Financial and Quantitative Analysis,  (1978).
Sarah F. Edwards
French society drastically changed in April 2011 with the implementation of âLaw of the Uncovered Face.â This law prohibits any article of clothing, religious or no, from covering the face, excluding safety and sporting equipment. The Muslim population of France is the religious group most affected, spurring many discussions about underlying motives for passing this legislation. Most of the Muslims in France today emigrated from former colonies of the French empire. This particular research looks at this relationship in a modern context, and examines what remaining colonial ties could exist within French society by comparing it with past legislation, legislative behaviors in France, what gendered implications exist and the colonial relationships that ended in the late 1900s.
A novel Barium-Strontium-Titanate(BST) varactor-tuned spiral bandstop filter (BSF) is presented. The BST varactor operation is based on the nonlinear dielectric tunability of BST thin film sandwiched between two metal layers in a conductor-backed coplanar waveguide(CBCPW) transmission line configuration. The varactor area is formed by the overlap area between the spiral shunt line in the bottom metal layer and the center signal line in the top metal layer. The considered spiral-structured devices of spiral shunt line sizes were designed, simulated and fabricated. The fabricated BSF is expected to achieve up to 40 dB rejection at microwave stop band with an optimized Q factor.
Leslie A. Sollmann
Flight in the hypersonic regime, approximately five times the speed of sound, has been of interest to militaries and commercial aviation enthusiasts for many years. Hypersonic airbreathing vehicles are desired for efficient long range cruise missiles, global reconnaissance, and access to space as they promise higher efficiency than current technology. Although there have been a few recent successes with government funded hypersonic programs, many technology gaps still exist and must be investigated before further progress can be accomplished for hypersonic vehicles. One of the limiting factors in the robustness of a hypersonic airbreathing engine involves starting inlets. In order to achieve sufficient combustion during flight, a vehicle must have a started inlet, an inlet in which there is no strong bow shock, no flow separation, and flow is not significantly disrupted by turbulent forces. There have been many techniques implemented to start an inlet such as retractable doors, variable inlet geometries, and mass extraction through perforations. Although the aforementioned techniques are all viable solutions, permanent perforations for excess air removal are arguably most beneficial due to ease in manufacturing and weight reduction of the overall inlet. This project analyzes the Molder Theory, a technique for developing bleed holes for excess air removal using necessary spillage area per unit length and the Kantrowitz Limit for hole spacing. To test the theory Computation Fluid Dynamics was completed on a simple axisymmetric Busemann inlet with various bleed hole configurations. Hypersonic wind tunnel tests are to be completed with a GoHypersonic Inc. axisymmetric Busemann scramjet inlet using the Kantrowitz Limit and Molder Theory for bleed hole configuration design. Experimental results will be obtained for validation of the Molder Theory for perforation location and sizing.
Adaptive optics (AO), as the technology of compensating the wavefront distortion can significantly improve the performance of existing optical systems. An adaptive optics system is used to correct the wavefront distortion caused by the imperfection of optical elements and environment. It was originally developed for military and astronomy applications to mitigate the adverse effect of wavefront distortions caused by Earthâs atmosphere turbulence. With a closed-loop AO system, distortions caused by the environment can be reduced dramatically. As the technology matures, AO systems can be integrated into a wide variety of optical systems to improve their performance. The goal of this project is to build such an AO system which can be integrated into high-resolution optical microscopy. A Thorlabs Adaptive Optics Kit was set up. A Shack-Hartmann Wavefront sensor, a Deformable Mirror and other necessary optics hardware was combined together on a breadboard, and the control software was also implemented to form the feedback loop.
Lawrence W. Funke
New technologies require greater cooling capacity than can be supplied by conventional fluids, such as water, ethylene glycol, or oil. The new nanofluids containing nanoparticles (one thousandth the thickness of a human hair) can significantly increase the cooling capacity of common fluids. This project aims to explore new fluids with added carbon nanoparticles. Ethylene glycol was used as the base fluid, and carbon nanoparticles with various crystallinities were added to the fluid. Fluids with different concentrations of additives (0 to 1%) were tested using three different apparatus to determine their cooling capacity under both static (stationary) and dynamic (in motion) conditions. It was found that the crystallinity and concentration of nanoparticles had a major effect. Results suggest that adding low concentrations of carbon nanoparticles with the proper crystallinity could greatly increase the heat transfer coefficient of the base fluid.
Danielle M. Bott
This study sought to discover what gifted female students felt and experienced in both high school and college mathematics classes and whether these feelings and experiences had an effect on their choice of college major(s) or career field(s). A researcher-designed survey was used to prompt the participants to reflect on their experiences and feelings. Through a qualitative analysis of the data few themes emerged, therefore, a question-by-question analysis of each participants' responses was completed. Results indicate that most of the participants had good experiences in high school and college, in general, but their responses varied greatly in how they viewed those experiences.
Comparison of Notophthalamus viridescens Transposon Expression in the Dorsal and Ventral Iris during Lens Regeneration
Glenna M. Knape
The Eastern Newt, Notophthalamus viridescens, has regenerative abilities. This study delved into the ability of the newt to regenerate the lens of its eye from the iris following a lentectomy surgery. To regenerate, the dorsal and ventral regions of the iris dedifferentiate and proliferate, yet only the dorsal iris redifferentes to create a lens, rather than both the dorsal and ventral iris. Several candidate transposons, or sections of viral DNA incorporated into another organismÃ¢ÂÂs genome, were selected from a transcriptome to study. In order to compare the differences between the dorsal and ventral irises, the candidate genesÃ¢ÂÂ expression levels were monitored in regenerating lens at 0, 4, and 8 day time points following the surgery. The expression levels were compared to determine whether they are correlated with the regenerative ability. A further understanding of the newtÃ¢ÂÂs regenerative abilities as a model organism could lead to groundbreaking advances in regenerative biology and medicine.
Comparison of Numerical Methods for Analysis of the Diffusion of Soluble Proteins Through Sensory Cilia
Nicholas D. Haynes
A recent paper in the Journal of General Physiology disproved the hypothesis that the ciliary axoneme and the basal bodies of cilia impose selective barriers to the movement of proteins into and out of the the cilium using a combination of numerical modeling and observation with confocal and multiphoton microscopy. We compare the accuracy and computational efficiency of the numerical method used in the paper, known as the method of lines, to another method, known as sinc collocation, and discuss the possible use of other methods for improving the algorithm.
William F. Nelson
Flash rusting is a corrosion process in which steel rapidly oxidizes upon contact with air at a high relative humidity. The ultimate goal of this research is to develop a bio-inspired flash rust inhibitor that is water-soluble and environmentally friendly. Several proteins and polypeptides from two classes of marine invertebrates have been identified for their potential to inhibit corrosion: the blue mussel Mytilus edulis and the sea squirts Mogula manhattensis and Styela clava. The most important feature of these biomolecules for corrosion prevention applications is the presence of post-translationally modified amino acid L-3, 4 dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-dopa). L-dopa has a well characterized ability to form strong bonds with metal ions, thus stabilizing the metal surface and inhibiting corrosion. Also, when enzymatically treated, L-dopa can participate in crosslinking reactions, which has been shown to lead to a thicker and more durable protein layer. In this study, cyclic potentiodynamic polarization was used to characterize the performance of the free amino acid form of L-dopa as a corrosion inhibitor. Mass loss and total charge passed were used to assess the extent of the corrosion reaction, and in addition, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) data was also collected. The results indicated that L-dopa is ineffective as a corrosion inhibitor when not included as part of a larger polymer, most likely due to insufficient adhesion to the substrate. Preliminary exposure chamber tests were also done with an unpurified mixture of proteins from Mytilus edulis. The results indicate that the proteins are inhibiting corrosion effectively for a short amount of time before failing. To increase the effectiveness of the protein, different incubation conditions will be investigated in the future.
Margaret M. Edison
This research project examines the researcher's cultural experiences and subsequent reactions toward them during a four-month study abroad program in Ireland. Daily experiences were recorded via journaling and then compared to research-based attributes of culturally responsive educators. The researcher compared the self-analysis of the journalsto research-based attributes of culturally-responsive teachers in an attempt to discover what qualities and skills the researcher needs to further develop and improve. From the comparison, an action plan for the researcher's professional development with regard to becoming culturally competent has emerged. This research project is significant because the researcher intends to be an urban teacher and therefore will be working with students of many cultures. Understanding what is required to be culturally competent will allow the researcher to successfully work with all students.