As environmental pollution from heavy metals and transition metals continues to occur, it is important to find reliable ways to remove the contaminants from soil and water. Peraza crown macrocycles are one type of molecule that have been known to act as a ligand and trap transition metals, removing them from the environment. For this research a synthesis was proposed to create a peraza crown with four nitrogen atoms in the central binding ring, with quinoxaline groups to either side of the molecule to increase rigidity and thus the binding speed and efficiency. While the different subunits of the designed molecule have been synthesized before, the general structure of this ligand has not been shown in literature. The synthesis for this new molecule avoids using a metal ion template to build the larger structure, and the route taken allows for nonsymmetrical products to form. Molecules with different substituents have been synthesized to explore the scope and the future ion binding.
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Smith, Alexis R., "Synthesis of Peraza Crown Macrocycles" (2020). Honors Theses. 282.