Production of extremely efficient flame retardants is ideal because, in many instances, the amount of flame retardants that are added to pre-production to the mixture are so large that they can have an effect on the physical properties of the material. In addition, these types of polymers, when added during production, are homogenously mixed throughout the mixture which means not only uniform distribution and therefore function, but a less concentration of the retardants need to be used. Using Phosphorus-Nitrogen containing flame retardants in mixtures can have two means by which they function. First is the ability of P-N compounds to crosslink or co-polymerize within the material at high temperatures such that it resembles a mesh. As temperatures increase, the amount of cross-bonding between the added flame retardants increases as well. In addition, the formation of phosphoryl radicals upon heating can interrupt one of the pathways by which combustion can occur, as it too involves free radicals. This is done by effectively removing hydroxyl radicals from the combustion process.
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Chemistry | Physical Sciences and Mathematics
Kloock, Colin, "Synthesis of Potential Phosphorus-Nitrogen Containing Flame Retardants" (2015). Honors Theses. 71.