Bailey N. Johnson



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Patriarchal and colonial structures have dominated North American society for centuries, consistently predicting the outcomes of lived experiences for marginalized groups. Over time, collective efforts within society have come to challenge these structures, including the contemporary feminist movement as well as decolonization efforts, respectfully. What has often been ignored within the mainstream feminist movement, however, is the interconnected nature of patriarchy with other oppressive structures, such as colonialism. This has resulted in a clear lack of identity of many in today’s world with the feminist label, despite adhering to sentiments of gender equity. Additionally, numerous other varieties of feminist scholarship and activism have emerged, seeking to ameliorate many of the existing gaps in mainstream feminism, including indigenous feminisms. Thus, I argue that as the mainstream feminist movement progresses in the contemporary moment, it is imperative that it make space for other feminisms which have sought to address many of its own gaps, specifically, indigenous feminism. The purpose of this would not only be to create more identity with the movement, but to develop tools for feminists to critically consider the binding connection between patriarchy and colonialism in ways that serves the overarching feminist goal of uprooting patriarchy.

Publication Date


Project Designation

Independent Research

Primary Advisor

Thomas L. Morgan, Castel V. Sweet

Primary Advisor's Department



Stander Symposium project, College of Arts and Sciences

United Nations Sustainable Development Goals

Gender Equality

The Necessity of Indigenous Feminisms in the Mainstream Feminist Movement