This gallery contains all projects from the 2020 Stander Symposium.
We have technologies implemented which assist us beyond the reasonable measures to make our life progress with minimum eﬀorts and maximum output. Only lagging in our ﬁght against devastating natural processes of Earth. The unstoppable force is beyond human intervention or control. Keeping in mind the disastrous eﬀects of natural calamities, we propose an idea to help and assist the heroes of our real life such as Fire ﬁghter, Defense personnel, Coast Guard etc. to save human lives, minimizing their individual risk. Detecting human in the distracted environment is very challenging due to the occlusion (i.e. people may be under debris), the unclear boundary (i.e. noisy background), and the coarse scale due to the distance. Here, we are building a network model and training it to seamlessly detect human out in plain sight. I am also considering this topic as part of my master thesis advised by Dr. Van Tam Nguyen. Creating a new data-set and then training the model to work precisely in harsh kind of environment possible. Images for data-set are chosen for their traits and uniqueness. Then feeding through a network built on Tensor-flow to learn from the data-set. Implementation of algorithm, since the data-set has new structure, shape and new observation of human images, algorithm chosen needs to be an accurate process with edge detection and processing. Then using it to up Mask R-CNN performance. We evaluate the proposed framework on the newly collected data-set. The extensive experiments on the data-set will evaluate the eﬀectiveness of our proposed framework for this interesting problem. Unlike other object detection where the applicable methods of detection has signiﬁcant references, human detection has been without an availability of well-formed data-set, which could set a benchmark and open the scope for many new research possibilities and high accuracy performing networks.
Rachel Carr, Cassidy Count, Jack Hallagan, Kelly Hines, Baylor Johnson, Zack Jordan, Katherine Kirchner, Troy Lampenfeld, Meaghan Lightfoot, Natalie Merline, Noel Michel, Sammy Miller, Claire Roberts, Carter Spires, Austin Williamson, Casey Willson
The River Stewards 2020 cohort will be presenting on the children's book that they have written over the course of the last year. Their book is a socially inclusive story centered around the Great Miami Watershed. This discussion will focus on how the cohort chose to focus on literacy in Dayton for their senior project, the year-long process from writing to printing, and how they identified and collaborated with their community partners. We encourage all those interested in literacy, watershed management, and community organizing to attend.
Chad M. Jaenke, Michael L. Weinstein
Genomes encode in DNA sequence the recipes for cellular products, notably proteins, and the switches that determine when during life and in which cell types these products are made. While the genetic code for protein recipes is known, a comparable code for these switches is lacking. This impedes understanding the genetic underpinnings of animals and their evolution, as switches (CREs) outnumber protein-coding genes by over an order of magnitude and switch evolution is thought to be a predominant mechanism of trait evolution. Both in vivo and in silico approaches exist to study CREs, but the former is low throughput, and the latter lacks validation of predictions. Our research merges these approaches to identify CREs controlling genes for an evolving fruit fly pigmentation trait. We will use sequences of CREs known to activate genes involved in pigmentation, in order to find the unknown CREs with similar activity. We will use the SCRMshaw bioinformatic tool to find putative CREs in the Drosophila melanogaster genome that control novel genes involved in pigmentation, based upon the putative CREs possessing DNA motifs similar to those within the known CREs. From this list, we will test eighteen for CRE activity in vivo as reporter transgenes. As a control, we tested a set of four randomly selected sequences of similar length and deoxyribonucleotide composition for in vivo activity. The results will reveal the extent this in silico method succeeded in CRE identification. For the validated CREs, we will elucidate the molecular mechanisms by which they similarly control gene expression, and whether they evolved in route to the gain, loss, and modification of male-specific abdomen pigmentation. The encoding of information in CREs is a universal feature of life, so these results bear upon life at every level.
Elizabeth Anderson, Kelly Bailey, Lauren Gembus, David Rueth, Nolan Scott, Duke Tobin Jr., Grace Treado
Flyer Consulting shares the past, present, and future of their organization. In this Stander Symposium keynote they feature past clients, current projects, and future initiatives. Audience members will have the opportunity to hear from the management team, project leads, and intern class, as well as learn about ways to get involved in the future.
Abby Jane Conard, Maya Elizabeth Gerker, Carolyn Claire Haney, Maxwell William Higgins, Collin James Wolf
With nearly 200 employees, annual revenues exceeding $1.2 million and 10 businesses, Flyer Enterprises is one of the largest student-run businesses' in the country.
Bacterial diseases that have been successfully treated with antibiotics for decades are now posing a threat to human health because of the development of antibiotic resistance in these pathogens. The overuse of antibiotics in agriculture and their misuse and/or the lack ofregulation in medicine are largely responsible for the high levels of antibiotic resistance found in common pathogens. The discovery of new antibiotics and alternative antimicrobial strategies has become critical. The Tiny Earth Network, a novel educational research program, is mobilizing high school and college students (BIO 411L) to participate in a global investigation through hands on research, in efforts todiscover new antibiotics. An independent research project centered on isolating bacteria from a soil sample was conducted, and these isolates were examined for compounds that exhibit anti-microbial effects on known pathogens. Three isolates from the sample were determined to have antimicrobial activity against Streptococcus epidermidis. Further biochemical tests were done on these isolates in order to identify them by their characteristics, including catalase, citrate, and gelatinase tests, SIM tests for motility, hemolysis tests, and tests for growth on TSI, MSA, and MacConkey agar. An antibiotic-producing isolate that was sequenced was determined to be a fungus in the family Magnaporthaceae. This project was successful in finding sources of antibiotics right on UD's campus, perhaps in an unlikely source: fungi. The novelty of the microorganism's antibiotic activity is unknown, but could be a prospect in the battle against antibiotic resistance.
Gain-of-function of mir-277 ameliorates Aβ42 mediated neurodegeneration in Drosophila eye model of AD
Prajakta D. Deshpande, Catherine Jean Yeates
Alzheimer’s disease (AD), an age-related progressive neurodegenerative disorder, exhibits reduced cognitive functions with no cure to date. One of the reasons for AD is the accumulation of extracellular Amyloid-beta 42 peptide (Aβ42) plaques that triggers oxidative stress, aberrant signaling, and finally results in the death of the neurons. The exact mechanism of neurodegeneration is still not well-understood. We misexpressed human Aβ42 protein in the developing fly retina, which triggers the neuronal cell death and exhibits AD-like neuropathology. Several studies have implicated the antiapoptotic role of microRNAs, post-transcriptionally regulate the gene expression by degrading mRNA of the target. In a forward genetic screen, we identified mir-277 as a genetic modifier of Aβ42 mediated neurodegeneration. The gain of function of mir-277 suppresses the Aβ42 mediated neurodegeneration whereas loss of function of mir-277 enhances the Aβ42 mediated neurodegeneration. We looked for the targets of mir-277 to understand the genetic mechanism of mir-277 mediated neuroprotection against Aβ42 plaques. Here we present the mechanism by which micro RNA provides neuroprotection to the neurons expressing high levels of Aβ42.
Gender Differences in the Role of Parent and Peer Attachment in College Adjustment for Childhood Maltreatment Survivors
Emily Budde, Katelyn Barnes, Erin Collins
Childhood Maltreatment (CM) survivors may have difficulty with college adjustment (CA), as evidence by higher dropout rates, in part because they may struggle using critical social resources. Among 114 first and second year undergraduates, parent and peer attachment were tested as mediators of the link between CM and total, relational, psychological, and educational CA. Gender was tested as a moderator, as female survivors have reported more relational disruption. Gender was found to moderate both the CM – attachment and attachment – CA links. Men, but not women, reported lower relational (CI = -.038, -.002) and total CA (CI = -.021, -.000) through impaired attachment to friends. While gender was found to moderate the links between CM and attachment to parents (p = .01), with a stronger relation for women (b = -.09) than men (b = -.05), no indirect effect was found through parent attachment. Findings suggest that, while both men and women may have impaired attachments, only men’s impaired relationships with friends affected CA. While counter to expectations, this may be consistent with documented stigma around CM in men, which may limit openness to using these social resources to adjust following CM and to college. College counseling centers could be critical in helping male survivors adjust by enhancing use of relational resources and by reducing stigmas.
Jesse Taylor Hughes, Rachel A. Johnson
Traits that appear discontinuously along phylogenies may be explained by independent origins (homoplasy) or repeated loss (homology). While discriminating between these models is difficult, the dissection of gene regulatory networks (GRNs) which drive the development of such repeatedly occurring traits can offer a mechanistic window on this fundamental problem. The GRN responsible for the male-specific pattern of Drosophila (D.) melanogaster melanic tergite pigmentation has received considerable attention. In this system, a metabolic pathway of pigmentation enzyme genes is expressed in spatial and sex-specific (i.e. dimorphic) patterns. The dimorphic expression of several genes is regulated by the Bab transcription factors, which suppress pigmentation enzyme expression in females, by virtue of their high expression in this sex. Here, we analyzed the phylogenetic distribution of species with male-specific pigmentation and show that this dimorphism is phylogenetically widespread among fruit flies. The analysis of pigmentation enzyme gene expression in distantly related dimorphic and monomorphic species shows that dimorphism is driven by the similar deployment of a conserved metabolic pathway. However, sexually dimorphic Bab expression was found only in D. melanogaster and its close relatives. These results suggest that dimorphism evolved by parallel deployment of differentiation genes but was derived through distinct architectures at the level of regulatory genes. This work demonstrates the interplay of constraint and flexibility within evolving GRNs, findings that may foretell the mechanisms of homoplasy more broadly.
Genetic interaction between the axial patterning gene defective proventriculus (dve) and Dpp signaling in the developing Drosophila eye
Anuradha Chimata Venkatakrishnan, Neha Gogia, Katie Marie Perry
An interesting question in developmental biology is how any three-dimensional organ develops from a single monolayer of cells. In multicellular organisms, delineation of Antero-Posterior (AP), Dorso-Ventral (DV) and Proximo-Distal (PD) axes is crucial for organ development. Drosophila melanogaster is an ideal model organism because genes and pathways are highly conserved between Drosophila and humans. During eye development, DV axis formation marks the first lineage restriction event and deviation in this process results in birth defects in the eye. We have identified defective proventriculus (dve) as a new dorsal eye fate selector in Drosophila. We hypothesize that dve, a transcription factor, regulates the Decapentaplegic (Dpp) signaling pathway, which is comparable to bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling in mammals, during dorsal eye development. We will investigate the role of dve in the dorsal eye and whether Dpp signaling requires dve to specify eye and head fate to form an organ of balanced size and shape. We utilized the GAL4-UAS system to modulate Dpp signaling in the dve domain. Thus far in our research, we have found that upregulating Dpp in the dve domain results in an enlarged eye phenotype, while downregulating Dpp in the dve domain results in a small eye phenotype. We have tested retinal determination genes to explore cell fate and further support the genetic interaction between dve and Dpp signaling. We are currently testing their interaction using clonal strategies to understand how dve regulates dpp in the developing eye. This study may have a significant bearing on growth, signaling and patterning defects and help in understanding the etiology behind genetic birth defects in the eye.
Jordan K. Bailes, Lakesha M. Fountain
Women in Malawi are faced with more challenges and pressures from society than their male counterparts. According to USAID.gov, Malawi has the eight highest child marriage rate in the world and is ranked 173 out of 188 on the Gender Inequality Index (GII). Due to these high rates of child marriage and inequality, young women are facing higher rates of gender based violence and teenage pregnancy. In Malawi, Determined to Develop is an NGO that works collaboratively with the Malawian community to identify needs and create solutions, primarily through a British-based education system. NGO’s in Africa often use their white, eurocentric culture to educate students through the NGO’s culture, often disregarding the students cultural capital and funds of knowledge. One of Determined to Develop’s main projects is a Girls Empowerment program that targets young women in the community and seeks to further develop them through activities and non-formal education designed to empower these women to advocate for themselves.Through a partnership with Determined to Develop (NGO), education programs can combine academic and activist voices to prepare young women as agents of change. This research seeks to develop agency and identity in young Malawian women through the Girls Empowerment Program by incorporating culturally responsive pedagogy into curriculum focusing on activism.
Due to the accelerated timeline of having under ten years to reduce anthropogenic sources of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, the next generation of climate change solutions will require hybrid strategies that both adjust to the consequences of inevitable climate changes (adaptation) and abate emissions to prevent intensifying future changes (mitigation). Humans will need to rethink the designs of large GHG-intensive systems, including the conventional food system that is currently GHG intensive, vulnerable to climate risks, and ecologically destructive to local ecosystems. This research begins to explore the role of urban farms in acting as a hybrid mitigation and adaptation strategy to climate risks. The potential of urban agriculture to act as a hybrid strategy is contingent on the farm’s ability to act as a net sink of emissions, while ensuring food security and economic viability. This research aims to be the first to quantify the GHG emissions, in terms of carbon equivalency, of all operational processes of a local urban farm in the Midwest region of the United States. A focus on the role of renewable energy in unlocking the carbon sink potential showcases the significance in abating emissions from electricity and heating/cooling needs. This work lays the foundation for the next step, in which an optimization model will be developed to adjust operational processes for optimal carbon storage. The timing of this research is critical as the Miami Valley region builds capacity to scale urban agriculture to better ensure climate resilience in the face of changing growing seasons and other climate-related threats to agricultural yields. Understanding the advantages of a carbon sink design in the context of local and regional benefits can effectively inform future urban farm designs.
Madeline Mock, Danielle Ostendorf, Lanny Sparks
A three year grant from the National Science Foundation was awarded to fund a Research Experience for Teachers (RET) that focuses on human-centered design and appropriate technology for developing countries. This collaborative RET between the University of Dayton (UD) and Central State University (CSU) will engage G6-12 pre-service and in-service teachers in a variety of engineering research opportunities through UDs ETHOS Center. The participants will participate in orientation activities, appropriate technology related research and/or human-centered design with a faculty member and on-site work at the international community partner’s facility. In addition, participants will develop curriculum with the participant cohort under the guidance of a curriculum coach that includes continued research with a faculty member, piloting, revising, and final submission of curriculum to TeachEngineering or for sharing with other college faculty on CSU’s and UD’s websites. The human-centered design portion of this RET will educate the participants on developing appropriate technologies for their geographical area that will meet the needs of the people while allowing them to remain self-sufficient after the participants leave their immersion site. This will be achieved through teaching the three phases of human-centered design: inspiration, ideation and implementation. These new tools and experiences will empower teachers to encourage their students to pursue engineering careers. In addition, this project will have a significant impact in the Dayton region and beyond through the participation of teachers and college faculty that teach a high number of students that are underrepresented in engineering and/or come from underserved schools.
Bethany R. Davies, Amber Johnson, Meg Maloney, Vaishnavi Shesham, Lauren Wolford
The University of Dayton prides itself on sustainability and green practices. The 'going green' movement is one that has grown substantially in the past few decades. While most associate this movement with broad efforts, this panel's focus is to discuss how this movement has affected current science graduate students at an individual level. Discussion will focus on how the 'going green' movement has affected his or her research, course offerings, career pathways, and outlook on a scientist's responsibility to others and the world at the graduate level.
Emily M Cordonnier, Megan Lewis
Food and family bring people together. Megan Lewis and Emily Cordonnier’s research focused on the history and relationship between both. Lewis explored the origin of recipes and the processes of making them while experiencing the conversations and moments that were generated from the guests that enjoyed them. The recipes, imagery, and stories were compiled in the form of a cookbook. Cordonnier’s research focused on her ancestral origin and related it to a familial tradition of Euchre. The final form of her research was formed into a three-dimensional family tree that highlighted relatives stories, professions, and surname etymology.
HealthNotes - Designing to Impact Quality of Life for Patients with Discordant Chronic Comorbidities while Improving Provider Time Management
Michael Graham, Ben Reutelshofer, Josh Schmellenkamp, Brandon Wong
Discordant Chronic Comorbidities (DCCs) severely impact patients. DCCs are conditions which are present in the same patient and contain conflicting treatment plans. DCC conflicts include prescriptions, dietary modifications, and activity levels. Where a combination of medical instructions to treat “Condition A” directly conflicts with treatment of “Condition B” in a way that either nullifies treatment or worse, they work together resulting in a negative impact to the patient. Patients struggle to prioritize medications and medical instructions in effort to find some relief while not suffering adverse effects of discordant treatments. In our study we show that the healthcare providers also face difficulties in the form of time management. The biggest cause of time loss is due to research into their patients. Patients may bring a list of their providers and medications, but often do not provide accurate information on previous procedures and tests. More often than not, the information is incorrect leaving the provider to reconcile the provided information and find the missing pieces. To address these issues, we designed a mobile application (HealthNotes). The goals of HealthNotes app are to; i) educate patients on their DCCs, ii) provide alerts to potential problems resulting from additional treatment recommendation and/or prescriptions, iv) improve communication between both the patient and provider, as well as between the patient’s various providers. These four elements will help improve the quality of life of a HealthNotes user.While serving the patients, our projects seeks to improve and streamline the use of doctors’ time This is accomplished by the user bringing an accurate list of their providers with contact information, and providing a list of tests and procedures reducing the possibility of duplication. This significant improvement to the efficiency of research will improve both patient experience as well as the provider’s time allocation.
The United States is one of six countries, roughly 10 percent of the global population, that make up half of all gun deaths that happen worldwide each year. Gun violence is a widespread issue in American life, especially as mass shootings seem to be happening more and more frequently. This study analyzes gender differences in public statements made by mayors following mass shootings in their towns. Using content analysis of 70 mass shootings from 2009 to 2019, I selected all 8 shootings with a female mayor, and 8 shootings with male mayors that most closely align with each. I collected three statements from each mayor about the shooting in their city, and coded them based on the frequency with which they referred to: the shooter, the victims, the community, law enforcement, policy failures/proposals for change, and any other recurring themes. I find that as the identities of the shooters and their victims are released, the issue of gender slowly moves to the front of the discourse- as it should. However, there have not been studies into the effect that gender has on the language used by politicians, more specifically mayors, in the wake of these horrific events. This study reveals patterns in mayoral statements, contributing data to the ever-raging debate concerning whether there are inherent differences between how men and women communicate.
Due to the rise of analytics in the NFL, teams go for it on 4th down more often than in past history. Teams like the Baltimore Ravens have adapted the philosophy of being more aggressive on 4th down, other teams still are more resistance to this change. Coaches may defend the decisions, statistics like win probability and estimated points added disagree. Using statistical models, this study includes all NFL 4th downs from 2014-19 with games within 21 points at the time of the play. The research will demonstrate when it warrants more aggressive behavior dependent on the situation, such as down and distance, score, time, or location of game, to enhance their chances of winning games.
Radio Venceremos was an underground guerilla radio station in El Salvador during their 12-year civil war (1980-1992). Radio Venceremos served as a counter to government owned media, broadcasting not only news from the front, but also entertainment, and messages from local personalities- such as local parish priests. In this article, themes from speeches and interviews with priests during the first two years of Radio Venceremos. These themes are similar to those employed in other texts associated with Liberation Theology but have a special focus on suffering and sacrifice as a means to achieve salvation. These themes are especially relevant in the Salvadoran context, as it encourage persistence to both citizens and guerilleros during the Civil War.
Reina Jimenez, Gianna I. Pou
Lebanon is currently fighting one of the worst economic crises in decades. Unemployment is rising, its currency (the Lebanese Pound) is depreciating in value. The Lebanese economy’s current debt-to-GDP ratio is one of 150%. This means it owes others way more than what it can produce and provide. The exchange rate between the Lebanese Pound (LBP) and the United States Dollar (USD) has remained fixed at 1,507.5 LBP per USD. The fact that almost half of the country’s debt is USD-denominated makes the repayment of this debt harder due to the LBP’s weakness against the USD and its continuing devaluation. This situation has triggered an uprising by Lebanese civilians as they attempt to condemn the government for years of corruption and mismanagement. The issue our paper addresses is aimed to answer the question of good governance and accountability in different CSOs and ISOs in Lebanon. We are going to use the new component of Civic Engagement Initiative (CEI) to see how it has affected good governance and accountability in these organizations in Lebanon. With this being a priority issue at hand in the Lebanese CSOs, we will be analyzing how the history of corruption in Lebanon has been a major issue in the context of development. By building alliances for local advancement, development, and investment, the BALADI CAP project will work on better responding to citizens’ needs and improve service delivery, provide capacity building assistance to improve the financial management and governance systems of CSOs and ISOs, and foster increased civic engagement in conduct of municipal affairs.
Marigrace Sandi Moses
There is often a disconnect between human rights issues and the protection of the environment. There is little talk about how the environment is key in the narrative of human rights in UDHR and other documents. The SDGs are a huge step towards seeing the big picture. I think it is crucial for people in both areas to see how they benefit one another. We know that lower income and minority groups are more affected by poor environmental conditions. It seems pointless for people to continue on their work without acknowledging that overlap. This project thus far had been a great way for me to apply my background in environmental biology to real life human rights issue. It is a missing link while we strive for equality.
Lauren Durnwald, Carly Hube, Miranda Melone, Emily Mosca
Human rights Center Graduate Fellows will present their supported research and explore linkages to international human rights and the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals (SDG). 1. Miranda Melone, "Achieving the Common Good," A presentation of research evaluating the effectiveness of a University of Dayton immersion trip to Zambia through the lens of the Sustainable Development Goals. 2. Lauren Durnwald, “Human rights and development in Malawi: Sustaining global partnerships,” The aim of this presentation is to use the framework of SDGs 4: Quality Education and 17: Partnerships for the Goals to reflect on the partnership between the University of Dayton and Determined to Develop NGO (D2D) through the lens of the Malawi Graduate Fellowship and Malawi Research Practicum. 3. Carly Hube & Emily Mosca, “Restraint and Seclusion in Ohio Schools,” This study examines two different aspects of restraint and seclusion in schools, the school psychologist’s perceptions and experiences with restraint and seclusion, and how Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (PBIS) impact the number of restraints and seclusions that occur.
Michaela Catherine Linehan
This semester, POL 334 has provided my classmates and I with the opportunity to make valuable connections to international human rights by applying them to the local level. We have been able to gather research that finds how the Sustainable Development Goals are relevant to local issues in Dayton. In hopes that Dayton will eventually become a Human Rights City, my research taught be about the interconnectedness between the 17 SDGs. While I am very passionate about food justice, my research extended far beyond and I was able to learn more about the issues that are relevant to Dayton. Some of my research focused on areas where Dayton falls short in upholding human rights, however I did come across great instances of resilience that make me proud to have lived in Dayton for the last eight years. In my work, I was able to continue to see the importance of hope in advocacy. I have ultimately come to learn how effective advocacy relies on certain techniques such as community engagement. I am hopeful the students of POL 334 have played an integral part of the first steps towards making Dayton a Human Rights City.
Landis Yuri Soto
As a Human Rights Studies Major being able to conduct this research has not only allowed me to know more about the SDGs and Human Rights Cities, its has also been a good learning experience on how the local and international communities can work together effectively to achieve goals.
I have also been able to learn more about the amazing work that is taking place throughout the Dayton Community, especially in regards to just and equitable methods used to assure that more and more underrepresented communities are being included.
Finally, this research has given an idea on how hard it can be to start an advocacy campaign.
Andrew Kohls, Katie O'Rourke, Cade Pantano
As alternatives to the classic gasoline and diesel powered vehicles become more popular for people looking to reduce their carbon footprint, it is important to take a holistic approach in determining what is truly the best option for the environment. An environmentally extended Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) was used to evaluate two categories of alternative fuels, electric-powered and bio-fuels. Electric-powered engines are an increasing percentage of vehicles on the road, the U.S. market share of plug-in electric passenger cars now sits at 2.2% of cars that take the road. (Coren) Three different classes of electric engines were analyzed in this study: single, dual, and tri-motor. Biofuel research is rapidly expanding and being implemented, as 10% of U.S. vehicle fuel consumption (by volume) was ethanol and over 98% of U.S. gasoline contained ethanol in 2018. (University of Michigan) This study analyzed the three main biofuels of compressed natural gas, ethanol, and biodiesel. A hybrid method of LCA allows for specific process data to be used when available, with general industry data to fill in the gaps, in order to get the most complete picture possible. ReferencesCoren, Michael J. “Automakers May Have Completely Overestimated How Many People Want Electric Cars.” Quartz, Quartz, 6 Jan. 2020, qz.com/1533976/automakers-may-overproduce-14-million-electric-cars-by-2030/.Center for Sustainable Systems, University of Michigan. 2019. "Biofuels Factsheet." Pub. No. CSS08-09.