ZFP36 Ring Finger Protein Like 1 (ZFP36L1) knockdown significantly reduced lipopolysaccharide-induced proinflammatory cytokine expression
Tooba Shafeeque Ahmed Momin, Andrew Villasenor
CCCH-Type Zinc finger proteins(CCCH-ZFP) are small protein domains that are structurally maintained by zinc ions. Zinc ions coordinate the protein structure in a tetrahedral geometry by biding cysteines or cysteines and histidine amino acids. The unique structure of CCCH-ZFP enables it to interact with a wide variety of molecules such as DNA, RNA, or cellular proteins and thus modulate several cellular processes including host immune response and virus replication. For the current study, we screened 68 CCCH type zinc finger proteins using a literature search for their antiviral as well as immunomodulatory properties along with their expression in human cells and their potential to interact with SARS-CoV-2 RNA using RNA-Protein Interaction Prediction (RPISeq) software. Using this strategy, we selected ZFP36 Ring Finger Protein Like 1 (ZFP36L1) which scored a higher point to interact with SARS-CoV-2 RNA and modulate host immune response as compared to other CCCH type zinc finger proteins. Before measuring the effect of ZFP36L1 expression on SARS-CoV-2 replication, we aimed to determine the effect of ZFP36L1 expression on host innate immune response. We overexpressed or knockdown ZFP36L1 in HEK 293T cells as well as in Raw 264.7 macrophage. Our preliminary results showed that knocking down ZFP36L1 significantly reduced lipopolysaccharide (LPS) mediated tumor necrosis factor-alpha(TNF alpha) expression (p<0.05). However, we still need to measure the effect of ZFP36L1 overexpression or knockdown on LPS induced TNF alpha at earlier timepoints.
Bidirectional associations between adjustment and academic achievement: Testing the adjustment erosion and academic incompetence hypotheses
Abigail Lou Stover
An association between academic incompetence and behavior problems exists. There are two frameworks to explain this association: the adjustment erosion and academic incompetence hypotheses (Van der Ende et al., 2016). These hypotheses relate to the directionality of the association between academic incompetence and behavior problems. The adjustment erosion hypothesis predicts that internalizing or externalizing problems lead to academic problems, whereas the academic incompetence hypothesis predicts that academic problems lead to internalizing or externalizing problems (Van der Ende et al., 2016). This study examines links between externalizing problems, internalizing problems, and academic performance, looking at bidirectional pathways between these variables, while controlling for confounding family background variables. This study uses previously collected longitudinal data from a nationally representative sample. Analyses included between 1,117 and 1,258 participating families. Reading and math achievement from children ages 5 to 14 were measured using the Peabody Individual Achievement Tests. Externalizing and internalizing behaviors were measured using the Behavior Problem Index completed by mothers during the same age range. Multiple regression analyses were used to test whether externalizing and internalizing problems at ages 5/6 predicted math and reading abilities at ages 13/14, and whether math and reading abilities at ages 5/6 predicted internalizing and externalizing problems at ages 13/14. Analyses controlled for maternal IQ, delinquency, highest grade, age at childbirth, family income, biological sex of the child, and the age 5/6 value of the age 13/14 dependent variable. Externalizing and internalizing problems in early childhood were found to significantly predict math and reading achievement at age 13/14. Math and reading achievement at age 5/6 were found to significantly predict externalizing and internalizing problems at age 13/14. Support was found for the adjustment erosion and academic incompetence hypotheses. These findings suggest that addressing academic deficits could aid later adjustment and addressing adjustment problems could improve academic performance.
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