Aerodynamic Study of the Turbulence in the Wake of a 2022 Formula One Car
For the 2022 Formula One (F1) season, F1 introduced a new set of technical regulations that reduce the complexity of the aerodynamic devices such as the spoiler, often called wings. The objective of this regulation change is to reduce the amount of turbulence produced allowing the cars to trail behind one another closer, making for easier overtaking and increasing the competitiveness of the sport. The present study evaluates and quantifies the aerodynamic performance of a 2022 F1 rear wing by using computational fluid dynamic (CFD) analyses. Both a study of a 2022 and 2021 specification rear wing is assessed to determine how the new technical regulations affect the turbulence in the wake of the car. The study is performed by taking cut planes in the fluid domain downstream of the rear wing model and integrating over the plane to determine the turbulence behind the wing. With this analysis, a comparison between the two rear wing specifications can be performed to determine the magnitude of impact the new technical regulations produce. From this, a conclusion can be made regarding the effectiveness of the 2022 F1 technical regulations, and whether the regulation change was justified.
A Longitudinal Investigation of Sibling Effects on Parent-Child Relationships
This study examines the relationship between one’s siblings’ internalizing and externalizing problems, and the effect those behaviors may have on one’s relationship with one’s parents. Previous research indicated that siblings’ relationships are some of the most long-lasting and important relationships in an individual’s life. Family research has also shown that there are situations in which children’s internalizing and externalizing behaviors can shape their relationship with their parents. However, no previous research to my knowledge has explored whether one’s sibling’s behaviors influences one’s own parent-child relationship. During this study, data from the United States Department of Labor and National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY79) as well as the Children of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (CNLSY) was analyzed. Internalizing and externalizing behaviors were evaluated through the Behavior Problems Index (BPI). The child’s perception of parenting was evaluated based on four scales: Autonomy, Disharmony, Intimacy, and Joint Activity (Hart et al., 1999). When siblings are further apart in age, there was an association found between internalizing and externalizing behaviors and Joint Activities, resulting in the younger child spending less time with parents. Disharmony between parents and children was found to be only correlated with the child’s own externalizing behaviors, not with a siblings’ externalizing behaviors. These findings do not provide clear support for the possibility that sibling behavior problems have influence on one's own parent-child relationship.
Anaerobic propionate exposure and its effect on the pathogenesis of Listeria monocytogenes
Listeria monocytogenes is a prevalent food-borne pathogen, and a clear understanding of its pathogenesis can enhance our capability to treat infections. L. monocytogenes is ingested through contaminated foods, enters the intestinal lumen, and is able to spread throughout the rest of the body. The intracellular life cycle of L. monocytogenes requires the regulated expressions of a variety of virulence genes. We previously found that exposure to short chain fatty acids (SCFAs), fermentation byproducts present in the intestines, resulted in significant changes in L. monocytogenes pathogenesis. This research, divided into two major projects, aimed to understand the relationship between L. monocytogenes, its host, and the exposure to SCFAs. Project one evaluated the effect of prior anaerobic exposure of SCFAs, specifically propionate, on strain 07PF0776, a cardiotropic clinical isolate. Hemolytic assays were used to measure the activity of secreted LLO as an indication of bacterial virulence. This project also assessed intracellular growth and actin polymerization of L. monocytogenes in cardiac myoblast cells and macrophages. To further investigate the mechanism underlying L. monocytogenes response to SCFAs, project two explored the role of CodY, a transcription factor in response to levels of branched chain amino acids, in the opposing effects of propionate on LLO production. By comparing the culture supernatant LLO activities in strain 10403s and a mutant with a codY gene deletion (ΔcodY), I discovered that CodY was required for the increase in LLO production in response to anaerobic propionate exposure. Together, the results of these projects provide further evidence for the relationship between SCFA exposure and L. monocytogenes pathogenesis. Ultimately, these findings can be utilized to improve the understanding of L. monocytogenes and develop effective prevention and treatment methods.
A New Long Wavelength BODIPY Probe for Protein Binding
A new single molecule 4-difluoro-4-bora-3a,4a-diaza-s-indacene (BODIPY) dyedesigned to conjugate to the peripheral amines of proteins have been synthesized. Thesynthetic route taken toward these dyes along with their characterization by 1 H NMR willbe described. This dye offers extraordinary absorption and emission properties withinthe far-visible region of the electromagnetic spectrum. Details of their spectroscopicproperties along with first attempts to conjugate this dye to proteins will be presented.
Anti-predator Behavior in Response to Conspecific Visual, Olfactory, and Damage Cues in the Three-spined Stickleback
Claire Van Meter
Predation is a major source of mortality for prey, which creates a selective pressure forbeing able to avoid predators whenever possible. By using alarm cues produced by conspecifics,organisms can be alerted of nearby predators without coming in direct contact with them.However, we do not know whether individuals can distinguish between different kinds ofconspecific cues and if some types of cues may indicate a more severe predation threat comparedto others. Three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) are used as a model for behavioralstudies because their defense responses have been well studied and identified, and they areknown to respond to both predatory and conspecific visual and olfactory cues. I studied theability of the three-spined stickleback to distinguish between environmental cues by exposingconspecifics to four different types of conspecific alarm cues: cues of predator-naïveconspecifics (control water with unexposed demonstrator), visual cues of predator-exposed conspecifics (control water with predator-exposed demonstrator), visual and conspecificolfactory cues (stress cues and predator-exposed demonstrator), and visual, conspecific olfactory,and conspecific damage cues (stress cues, damage cues, and predator-exposed demonstrator). For 5 minutes before and after exposure to the cues, I watched for four key defensive behaviors:hiding in plants, hiding in the gravel at the bottom of the tank, swimming into the walls of thetank, and shoaling. I assayed 40 conspecifics over 8 weeks, for a total of 160 trials. Directly after each assay, I placed the focal subject in 200ml of RO water in a 600ml beaker for 1 hour to collect waterborne cortisol. I will run this water through ELISA assays to measure the cortisol concentration in the sample. I hypothesize that the conspecifics will be able to distinguish between the severity of the cues, causing an increase in anti-predator behavior response in exposure to all the combined cues in comparison to a few, or none of the cues. I anticipate that through this research, we will gain a better understanding of the influence of conspecific communication, specifically regarding how conspecifics interpret olfactory and visual conspecific cues. Anti-predator behavior is often costly, so being able to determine when such behavior is necessary based on conspecific communication could be a key factor in the survival and success of species.
Application of Pressure Sensitive Paint at the University of Dayton: Small Rotorcraft Applications
Traditional measurement of pressure on wind tunnel models requires individual pressure transducers or other discreet sensors. When considering a large area or complex geometry, placing an adequate number of sensors can be cost prohibitive and physically challenging. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) provides an alternate approach to such experiments, but often needs experimental verification. Pressure-sensitive paint (PSP) is a distinctive, appealing technique for providing pressure measurements in these cases. By measuring the intensity of a specialized paint’s luminescence, the pressure at almost all visible points on a test object can be found. In some unsteady aerodynamic cases, the paint mixture is altered to provide faster response times, thus allowing rapidly changing phenomena to be analyzed. This technique has been utilized for several decades; however, it is heretofore unused at the University of Dayton. This research provides the groundwork for the use of PSP in various applications at this university. The technique is then applied to analyze the ground effects of small rotorcraft blades. This will assist in revealing the underlying characteristics of the unsteady flow that occurs between a small propeller and the ground, as may occur in unmanned aerial vehicles.
A Sibling Comparison Study Exploring Effects of Parenting on Self-Esteem in Adolescents
Prior research has suggested a link between self-esteem in children and adolescentsand the parenting styles and behaviors of their parents. Research has identified dimensions ofwarmth, control, autonomy support, trust, flexibility, and demandingness as potential variablesexplaining this relationship. Existing literature has been limited by confounding variables suchas genetic influences, home environment, race, culture, and socioeconomic status, as well as by alack of longitudinal data. The current study uses a sibling comparison design to control for theinfluence of these genetic and environmental variables and allow for a more accurate estimate ofthe link between parenting and self-esteem. It uses data from the Children of the NationalLongitudinal Survey of Youths (CNLSY) which includes 11,545 biological offspring of womenin the previously collected data set, the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, 1979 (NLSY79).The data on parenting styles and behaviors was taken from three domains of the CNLSY: theshort form HOME survey, a report of engagement, and a survey of perceptions of autonomy,disharmony, and intimacy. Self-esteem was measured using the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale. Asignificant association was found between intimacy and self-esteem scores in the populationestimate; however, this association was not significant in the sibling-comparison model. Resultssuggest that links between self-esteem and parenting behaviors are confounded by backgroundvariables within families.
Assistive Communication Device Technology: Ethics and Possibilities in Therapy with Non-Speaking Clients
Music therapy is a healthcare field wherein music experiences and the myriad relationships formed between client(s), board-certified music therapist(s), and music activates health-oriented changes (Bruscia, 2014). Within this field there are multiple facets that directly impact the client’s experiences; these include: arrangement of the therapy environment, role and function of music experiences, therapeutic relationships, and communication in verbal and non-verbal forms. However, there is a gap in the education and training of music therapists concerning alternatives to verbal communication, and the use of these alternatives in therapy. Through interviews and analysis, this thesis presents findings regarding the experiences of one non-speaking music therapy participant, and three board certified music therapists with relevant expertise, to empower current and student music therapists to advance their engagement with non-speaking clients in music therapy.
Bottom-up Approach to Rebuild Synergy in Biofilms to Stimulate the Degradation of Recalcitrant Polymer Coatings
The movement toward more environmentally friendly approaches to thwarting biofilm formation on marine and aerospace equipment has led to a more comprehensive approach to deconstructing and identifying the complex interactions with biofilms on polymer coated surfaces. We will present results from the biodegradation of defined thermoplastic polyester polyurethane and polyether polyurethane coatings using single environmental strains of Bacillus megaterium, Papiliotrema laurentii, and defined mixtures of these two organisms as both liquid cultures and as biofilms on polymer coated surfaces. We will show the changes in population dynamics using a quantitative PCR approach and selective agar plate based assays using antifungal or antimicrobial agents. We will present how under nutrient limited conditions these two organisms appear to control their activity and population density to survive on the carbon sources released from the successful hydrolysis of the synthetic coating. These data show how a prokaryote and eukaryote originally isolated from the same environmental consortium inside of an aircraft interact to affect the degradation of a coated surface over time.
Capital Embodiment: White Beauty and Bodies in Sally Rooney’s Debut Novel
Beauty standards that have long been understood by feminist theorists as sexist also have a history of being rooted in racism. By reproducing the white, slender representations of beauty uncritically, authors potentially perpetuate the racist, classist, and sexist hierarchies in which our cultural norms are rooted. Popular, contemporary author Sally Rooney consciously writes about the privileges of wealth but fails to write in the same way about the capital of beauty and slender bodies. My literary analysis focuses on the political power and implications of the white beauty and embodiment of Frances in her debut novel from 2017. Rooney’s representation of white women is detrimental, I argue, only insofar as the power of whiteness and thinness that is written into their bodies is unclaimed and uncriticized. The thin beauty ideals which oppress and empower women within what bell hooks calls ‘capitalist white supremacist patriarchy’ make embodiment political especially for women at the top like Rooney and her characters. Frances experiences white beauty and embodiment as inhumane perfection and punishment that prevents connection despite exciting desire.
Comparing Amount of Mechanical Work and Metabolic Cost between Two Kettlebell Swing Protocols
The kettlebell swing has been touted as having both cardiovascular-driven metabolic and strength benefits which several studies have investigated. However, to the authors’ knowledge, none have researched the work economy of the exercise by capturing both mechanical work and metabolic cost. Here, we implement a commonly studied kettlebell swing protocol consisting of short intervals of 20 reps and 30 seconds of rest and compare it to longer intervals of 60 reps followed by 90 seconds of rest. Work-rest ratio was 1:1 for both protocols based on a consistent cadence (short: 36.75 ± 2.12 vs. long: 37.08 ± 1.66 reps/min). Total volume was the same. A group of 6 young adults, familiar with the kettlebell swing, performed both protocols separated by 20 minutes of rest. To calculate total mechanical work performed (J/kg), we used the Noraxon motion capture system. Oxygen consumption (VO2) and other metabolic variables were captured using a metabolic cart (Parvo). We hypothesized that longer intervals might challenge form due to muscle fatigue, thereby changing economy despite matched work-rest ratios and total volume. Contrary to our hypothesis, there is no statistical significance in total mechanical work (short: 1043 ± 261 J/kg vs long: 1159 ± 334 J/kg, paired t-test: p = 0.49) between the two protocols. Similarly, total VO2 (short: 121 ± 14 vs long: 126 ± 15 vs long: mL/kg; paired t-test: p = 0.62) was not significantly different and the total work economy, total VO2 divided by total work, was also not significantly different (short: 0.122 ± 0.031 ml/J vs long: 0.118 ± 0.043 ml/J; paired t-test: p = 0.34). These findings suggest protocols of the same work-rest ratios for the kettlebell swing elicit similar work even with different duration intervals.
Competition Versus Choice: Evolution Along a Narrow Path in Drosophila β2 Tubulin
The Drosophila melanogaster β2 protein (Dmβ2) has sustained a long evolutionary stasis for the last 60 million years. Even small changes to the protein’s primary amino acid sequence render it non-functional, suggesting its stasis may be due to stringency in the structure/function relationship. This project seeks to understand what has prevented Dmβ2 from evolving, with the two main hypotheses being that Dmβ2 either exists as an ideal protein configuration that competitively bests all alternates or that Dmβ2 is the only possible configuration that will support spermatogenesis in Drosophila melanogaster. In order to test these hypotheses, the ability of other proteins to rescue β2 function must be assessed. Previous work done to test β2 function used the major, non sperm-generator tubulin (β1) as a backbone to test the function of candidate sperm-generating residues. While sperm-generating residues were identified, none were sufficient to rescue fertility in a Dmβ2 null background. This project represents a different approach to analyzing the evolutionary stasis of Dmβ2 by testing the ability of a known sperm-generating ortholog from Glossina morsitans (commonly known as the tsetse fly) to rescue fertility. This sequence is 96% identical to Dmβ2 and is of particular interest because it is the closest relative to Drosophila melanogaster that possesses a variation in β2 sequence. When expressed in a Dmβ2 null background, the tsetse fly β2 (Gmβ2) generates long-tailed, fertile sperm when examined by light microscopy on testis samples and fertility tests between transgenic males and virgin wild-type females. This evidence supports the first of the two hypotheses outlined above, that β2 alternates exist but Dmβ2 is competitively superior. This shows the potential for β2 to participate in the process of evolution, potentially through allelic effects on sperm-tail length, which plays an important role in the retention of sperm in the female reproductive tract. Comparative analyses of outgroups, such as the human β2 ortholog (Hsβ3), will provide further information necessary to assess the roles of generic aspects of β2 such as motility versus more lineage-specific properties such as sperm tail length in the process of spermatogenesis.
Connecting Compositions of Gustav Holst: Folk Songs and The Planets
Gustav Holst, a British composer from the early 1900’s, is most well-known for writing “The Planets,” an orchestral suite with movements for each of the planets and their corresponding astrological personalities. A significant portion of Holst’s lesser-known compositions were based on British folk songs. In my thesis, I am exploring the connections between Holst’s folk song-based pieces and “The Planets” in terms of the compositional devices of meter, tonality, orchestration, and melody. These compositional devices are threads that connect both types of pieces together and define Holst’s characteristic style.
Contesting Human Rights Coherence: Neoliberalism as an Epoch of Brutality
The end of the Cold War solidified modern human rights’ dependency on neoliberalism. Neoliberal capitalism fosters universal commodification, hyper-individualism, and a standard of excess. A consequence of these developments is that some persons of marginalized populations turn to crime as a means of achieving basic human rights. To particularize, the realization of the self as a rights-holding subject emerges from the brutalization and subsequent de-realization of the other. Furthermore, justifications of such actions may be coherent within the modern human rights discourse. This thesis is contextualized by the historical dynamics and present-day observations of El Salvador, which I take to represent broader global trends in the development of human rights into a discourse of apparently coherent brutality. Given this contradiction, I compare the peril and potential of reclaiming human rights as a popular discourse.
Creating a Secure Cloud
The next wave of computing is moving to the cloud. The cloud offers reliable, scalable, and cheap ways for companies to upgrade their business. It has revolutionized how we interact with each other today and is becoming an integral part of our everyday lives. However, when companies move to the cloud, they must set up their cloud architecture or data transmission securely. This leads to huge security risks in which sensitive data could be released. This project outlines the different threats and vulnerabilities that the cloud faces. It also surveys the current solutions to cloud security. Finally, a generalized model and considerations are discussed when creating cloud architecture. This model will be used in a case study to validate the efficacy of this cloud architecture.
Cross-Cultural Educational Exchanges for Peace Through Common Humanity
How do human connections formed from cross-cultural educational exchanges promote peace and understanding? These personal connections can lead to deeper cultural understanding and awareness, which can lead to peace. Many cross-cultural educational exchanges such as Fulbright were created to promote peace and understanding. Cross-cultural educational exchanges now take on more forms due to increases in the ability to share knowledge which supplies more opportunities for conflict and misunderstanding or peace and understanding. Due to this, it is important to have students take part in cross-cultural educational experiences to create personal connections, so they can better understand cultural differences. This experience can create global citizens who are able to understand and navigate the barriers of culture. Through literature review and synthesis, human connection is shown to be vital in the creation of peace and understanding across cultures.
Design of an Electro-pneumatic Control System for Soft Robotic Applications in Medicine and Industry
The University of Dayton DIMLab (Design of Innovative Machines) is working in the area of soft robot design. In prior work, the DIMLab has investigated predictive CAD modeling of the PneuNet actuator, proposed by the Whitesides Research Group of Harvard University. PneuNet actuators are mainly used in soft robotic grippers capable of moving fragile or asymmetrical objects. The DIMLab has years of work invested in the design and production of soft pneumatic actuators, but has lacked an ability to test printed models at specific pressure increments. The basis of all soft robotic applications lies in having the ability to accurately control the pressure coming from the air supply. Digital pressure regulators exist but are costly and designed for much higher pressure applications. Furthermore, current pressure regulators are only applicable to industry as they must be connected to an external air supply confined to the work environment, which is less desirable for mobile applications. Another challenge is cataloging the relationship between the amount of supplied air pressure and the corresponding deflection of the soft robot. As of now, researchers have used a mechanical pressure regulator and have measured the displacement of soft robots by hand, which introduces significant human error in the recording of test data. This is a very time consuming process and must be repeated for every model that is to be tested. Rather, the developed system incorporates computer-based vision sensing to track the orientation of the soft robot, and allows user-interaction via a Graphical User Interface (GUI). This honors thesis proposes a working prototype which will serve as the foundation for all of the DIMLab’s soft robot testing now and in the future. In addition, research will continue in the development of PneuNet-like actuators, including their design, simulation, and printing.
Determining the effects of propionate and low temperatures on L. monocytogenes survival and pathogenesis
Listeria monocytogenes is a pathogen with the capability of causing severe illness in individuals who consume contaminated foods. Many foods have been found to harbor the bacterium, but dairy products, produce, and other prepackaged foods are particularly susceptible. These foods and others are commonly stored in cold temperatures to limit most bacterial growth. However, previous research has shown that L. monocytogenes has unique adaptations that promote its growth in low temperatures. To counter the negative effects of cold temperatures, L. monocytogenes alters its membrane composition to maintain its integrity. Alterations to the cell membrane of L. monocytogenes are also an effect of propionate, a common food additive and short chain fatty acid found in the human intestinal tract. In past research, propionate has been proven to reduce L. monocytogenes growth and pathogenesis by decreasing membrane fluidity. However, the effects of both cold and propionate on L. monocytogenes pathogenesis are not known. To address this knowledge gap, my research investigates and analyzes how cold temperature and propionate affect the ability of L. monocytogenes to infect and grow within eukaryotic cells. I have found that propionate has no significant influence on the optical density of L. monocytogenes cultures grown between 4°C and 10°C in both aerobic and anaerobic conditions measured over four days. To further examine the effects of cold temperatures and propionate on L. monocytogenes, I will use cell culture-based infection models to measure L. monocytogenes pathogenesis and cell-cell spread in macrophage, fibroblast, and intestinal epithelial cells.
Determining the Effects of Propionate on Listeria monocytogenes Susceptibility to Lysozyme
Jeanne Paula Sering
Listeria monocytogenes is a harmful pathogen transmitted through contaminated food. Listeriosis, the infection associated with L. monocytogenes, is rare but potentially fatal, with a twenty to thirty percent mortality rate. For that reason, the lack of safe strategies to prevent infections can be detrimental. Current infection preventative strategies rely on stringent food surveillance and recalls, but we want to determine alternative tactics to further protect the public from L. monocytogenes. More specifically, we want to identify environmental factors that can compromise the ability of L. monocytogenes to cause infections before the pathogen reaches the intestines. For example, propionate is generally recognized as safe by the FDA and is used as an additive in various food products. Our lab has previously demonstrated that propionate exposure in L. monocytogenes can lead to changes in growth and pathogenesis. To determine how propionate exposure affects L. monocytogenes survival and fitness in the gastrointestinal tract, my thesis project therefore studies the effects of propionate on L. monocytogenes resistance to the lysozyme found in our saliva. If propionate enhances L. monocytogenes lysozyme resistance, the use of propionate in food products might contribute to L. monocytogenes survival during transmission between food and our gastrointestinal tract. However, if propionate decreases L. monocytogenes resistance to lysozyme, it could be beneficial to use propionate as an efficient infection preventative strategy. To better understand the functions of propionate in L. monocytogenes lysozyme resistance, I performed a literature review in the following areas: the importance of oral health, antimicrobial mechanisms in the oral cavity, lysozyme, and Listeria monocytogenes.
Determining the Role of Propionate and SigB on Benzalkonium Chloride Resistance in Listeria monocytogenes
Listeria monocytogenes (L. monocytogenes) is a deadly food borne pathogen that causes listeriosis infection in humans with a high mortality rate from meningitis or sepsis. L. monocytogenes can form biofilms in food processing environments and becomes resistant to antimicrobial agents such as benzalkonium chloride (BC) and other quaternary ammonium chlorides (QACs). BC is used for cleaning and disinfection of food processing areas and is known to disrupt cell membranes of L. monocytogenes, causing cytosol leakage and the degradation of proteins and nucleic acids. Previous research shows that QAC resistance is associated with the upregulation of certain efflux pump genes (mdrL, brcABC, qacH, and emrE). Moreover, biofilm formation can also contribute to QAC resistance and subsequent persistence of L. monocytogenes in the environment. In addition, propionate is a commonly used food additive for flavoring and spoilage prevention that can potentially regulate L. monocytogenes biofilm formation. Biofilm formation and the expression of efflux pumps can both be regulated by the stress response sigma factor SigB in L. monocytogenes. However, it is not clear whether propionate affects this regulatory pathway. Therefore, my Honors Thesis research aims to investigate whether propionate can be used to increase L. monocytogenes susceptibility to BC and to determine the role of transcription factors, such as SigB, in conferring BC resistance. Results indicate that BC decreases planktonic growth in the presence of propionate in aerobic conditions, but not anaerobic conditions. Additionally, the growth of the ΔsigB mutant is significantly reduced by BC under anaerobic but not aerobic conditions. These results highlight that SigB as well as the presence or absence of oxygen all play critical roles in regulating L. monocytogenes susceptibility to BC. Therefore, environmental conditions and genetic composition of L. monocytogenes can both contribute to the efficacy of our antimicrobial efforts in the food processing industry.
Determining the role of propionate in macrophage M1 and M2 activation
Macrophages are one of the many essential cells of the innate immune system that help to protect the body from dangerous pathogens such as Listeria monocytogenes. L. monocytogenes is a foodborne pathogen that can cause infections, especially in the elderly, immunocompromised, and pregnant women. The antimicrobial activities of macrophages that are utilized to respond to pathogens such as L. monocytogenes include phagocytosis, inflammatory responses, and the production of antimicrobial compounds such as nitric oxide. These activities need to be regulated carefully to avoid causing unintentional damages. Typically, macrophages exist in a naive, nonactivated state, or can be activated classically (M1) and alternatively (M2) by different cytokines. Furthermore, propionate, a major gut metabolite, can also influence macrophage activities. To better understand how propionate affects macrophage antimicrobial activities, I investigated how the morphology of macrophages at various activation states are altered by propionate treatment. Using cell culture-based assays, I observed that propionate elongates nonactivated, M1, and M2 activated macrophages, indicating that propionate may modulate a macrophages response to infection. Additional experiments were performed to assess how propionate treatment of nonactivated and activated macrophages impacts infection with L. monocytogenes, glucose consumption, and cell motility. The findings from this research will help to identify ways in which propionate can enhance macrophage ability to respond and fight dangerous pathogens such as L. monocytogenes.
Effect of Arch Height on Dynamic Balance and Neuromuscular Control in Young Adults
The foot, functioning as a lever to support our body weight during movement, can present with structural differences like a smaller arch height resulting in pes planus or flat feet, or a higher arch height which is called pes cavus. Commonly, arch height develops with age, as infants are born with flat feet and, as they grow, their arches develop until the ages of 10-13 years. Dysfunction in the foot from abnormal arches has been shown to impact foot function and ankle stabilization, which can influence sports performance and injury risk. Dynamic balance is an important aspect of many different types of sports, and can be an indicator of good performance. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effects of different arch heights on dynamic balance and muscle activation, so that informed interventions can be implemented to improve performance. This study looked at 15 healthy young adults between the ages 23-25 years. We evaluated arch height index (AHI) by scanning the volume of their foot in a single leg stance of their dominant leg. Participants then performed three trials of the Star Excursion Balance Test (SEBT) to evaluate dynamic balance. A motion capture system was used to obtain reach distance, center of pressure sway on a force plate and muscle activation of muscles of the thigh and shank. This study aims to conclude how dynamic balance is impacted by arch height looking at correlations between arch height and each of the variables. Our results will demonstrate how different muscles might activate across different arch heights. Practitioners might then implement exercises to target specific muscles that are under or over utilized.
Effects of Chronic Pharmacological Modulation of SERCA in Learning and Memory Processes in Mice
Ben Klocke, Carter Moore
Calcium ions (Ca2+) in the brain play a vital role in prominent neurobiological functions, including neural communication, growth, long-term potentiation, and cell death. As a result, the regulation of Ca2+ levels in neurons is carefully managed, and Ca2+ dysregulation has been linked to various neuropsychiatric disorders including Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and Schizophrenia. Herein, we sought to investigate how chronic pharmacological activation of an integral endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-handling effector may affect learning and memory in the Morris Water Maze test in C57BL/6J mice of both sexes. In the context of the current honors thesis, we have gained insights into the relationship between intracellular Ca2+ homeostasis and learning and memory processes. Our efforts are currently targeted towards extending our findings in additional animal models of learning and memory.
Effects of propionate on macrophage migration with and without infection
Macrophages are leukocytes that play an important role in the antibacterial responses by our body’s immune system. The activities and functions of macrophages are influenced by a variety of substances, such as short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) found in the gut. Currently, we know that SCFAs, such as propionate, induce directional recruitment of leukocytes. For intracellular bacterial pathogens, the movement of infected macrophages can contribute to the systemic dissemination of the pathogens. However, little is known whether SCFAs like propionate can modulate the movement of infected macrophages. To fill this knowledge gap, Listeria monocytogenes, a human pathogen capable of causing infections with high mortality rates, is used as the model intracellular pathogen. It is not clear how propionate modulates activities of macrophages infected with Listeria monocytogenes. The first objective of my honors thesis is to develop a transwell protocol to assess macrophage migration, including the identification of optimal staining procedures, macrophage numbers, and transwell pore sizes. The second objective of my honors thesis is to investigate how propionate changes the migration of infected macrophages. Findings from this study can help us better understand regulatory signals for macrophage functions and reveal potential immunotherapeutic treatments against intracellular infections.
Evaluation of Potential Risk Factors for Osgood-Schlatter’s Disease
Osgood Schlatter’s Disease (OSD) is a condition of inflammation of the patellar tendon and tibial tuberosity that can lead to pain and discomfort. It is most common in adolescents aged 8-15 years who are physically active or participate in sports. Adolescents participating in sports and going through puberty struggle to handle the load put on their lower body. The few studies that have determined OSD risk factors have performed retrospective studies that consist of subjects who have already been diagnosed with OSD. Some of the commonly accepted risk factors are overuse, performing movements such as jumping or cutting, and an improper balance of strength and flexibility of the hamstring and quadriceps muscles. The quadriceps and hamstring muscles work in tandem to flex and extend the knee, which places stress on the patellar tendon. This study aims to evaluate the stress that certain soccer related movements place on the patellar tendon of children between ages 7 and 12 years old and if flexibility and muscle strength impacts that stress. Investigating how patellar tendon load is affected by certain soccer related movements and the flexibility and strength of the quadriceps and hamstrings will help to determine risk factors. Determining certain risk factors will inform pre-adolescents and adolescents of specific physical activity related precautions.
The following 2023 Stander Symposium projects were completed by University of Dayton students completing theses in the University Honors Program.
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