The Brother Joseph W. Stander Symposium recognizes and celebrates academic excellence in undergraduate and graduate education. This annual event provides an opportunity for students from all disciplines to showcase their intellectual and artistic accomplishments. The Stander Symposium represents the Marianist tradition of education through community and is the principal campus-wide event in which faculty and students actualize our mission to be a "community of learners."
Identifying upside and downside performance potential for Flyer Fund Stocks in the high volatile market period, 2007-2011.
Catherine G. Camerota, Jacob A. Recker, Kelsey E. Stroble
The purposer of this study is to determine if historical measures of upside and downside capture ratios can be used to determine the future performance of Flyer Fund stocks. Monthly upside and downside capture ratios were calculated for 20 Flyer Fund stocks over the period 2007-2012. Using cross sectional regression analysis, the returns for the 20 stocks in 2011 were regressed on the average upside and downside capture ratios for each stock calculated over the 07-10 period. The results indicate that a combination upside/downside capture ratio is useful in predicting shortterm stock performance.
Mark F. Kocoloski, Joseph D. Nitting
The purpose of this study is to examine the impact of sector idiosyncratic risk and beta on sector performance in three market periods: (1) overall period, 2005-2011, (2) the downswing period, 1-1-08 to 3-31-09, and (3) the upswing period, 3-31-09 to 12-31-10. Monthly data will be used to calculate beta and idiosyncratic risk. A time series regression for each sector, with the return of the sector as the dependent variable and the return to the market as the independent variable, is used to calculate sector betas. Then the error terms or the residuals are used to calculate idiosyncratic risk. Using 2011 as an out-of-sample time period, the annual returns to the 10 sectors are regressed on the long term betas and idiosyncratic risk. Because 2011 has very definitive upswing and downswing periods, the returns for these sub-periods are regressed on the upswing and downswing measures for beta and idiosyncratic risk. The results are forthcoming.
Grounded in a behavior finance argument, I reexamine the relation between idiosyncratic risks and the cross-section of expected stock returns by taking regime shifts into consideration. I find that there are significant regime shifts over a long time horizon and that regime shifts do influence the relation between idiosyncratic risks and cross-section of expected stock returns.
Transformative learning has played a pivotal role in adult education since Jack Mezirow analyzed perspective transformation over 30 years ago. However, despite numerous empirical studies addressing theoretical and practical dimensions, little data exists regarding the individual experience of perspective transformation and its contextual influences. Using an autoethnographic methodology that is as contemplative as the subject matter itself, this unique qualitative study examines transformative learning and select conceptual underpinnings--including critical reflection, spirituality, authenticity, and self-transformation--as they relate to adult learning both in and outside of the classroom. Data collection techniques include: a study of artifacts; self- and participant interviews incorporating the Action-Reason-Thematic Technique (or ARTT); personal narrative comprising journal writing, critical incidents, and metaphor analysis; as well as conceptual mapping. Through careful self-examination and systematic reflection, the researcher explores abstract ways of "coming to know," considering intrapersonal, interpersonal, and cognitive dimensions. Due to its sensitive, intertwined, and evolving nature, such epistemic practice may prove difficult to investigate otherwise, using alternate, large-scale means. The study offers a conduit between what is personal and what is cultural, providing an intimate, experiential account of meaning making, while relating it to context. As the nature of modern life becomes increasingly pluralistic, interdependent, and complex--forcing individuals to grapple with notions of "self," "universe," and "other"--the implications for self-discovery and society are immense. The researcher addresses possibilities for personal and social change, as well as multiculturalism, highlighting an intricate process of challenging individual and cultural assumptions as she navigates uncertainty. Presentation material includes select concept maps, as well as creative work and personal photography.
Emily A. Pannier
The Social Justice Sophomore Learning and Living Cohorts mission is to improve literacy in the Miami Valley. As a member of the cohort, I was trained to tutored adults by the non-profit organization Project READ. Project READ is a truly inspiring organization whose mission is to build skilled workers, strong families, and healthy communities. I was placed in an adult class in Kettering Ohio where students were from countries such as Mexico, Russia and Iraq. All of the students were learning English for the first time most of them knew very little to no English when they moved to the United States. Some students wanted to learn better English skills in order to find a job and others just wanted to be able to communicate with other English speakers. I worked as an assistant to Holly Elkins-Lopez, a full time Project Read teacher. I assisted her by giving students more individualized assistance. I was able to help the students sound out words, build vocabulary and understand grammar. I got the opportunity to learn and understand other people's culture through volunteering. I also connected this experience with the Marianist ideals of lead, learn, and serve by leading others in becoming literate in the English language, learning about other cultures and serving my community through tutoring. It was very rewarding to watch all the students make major progress in learning the English language.
Inhibition of the PriA and PriB Primosome Proteins of the Neisseria gonorrhoeae Replication Restart Pathway.
Hayley E. Ward
DNA damage that occurs in bacterial cell DNA can lead to cell death by inhibiting the replication of genetic material. Bacteria, such as Neisseria gonorrhoeae, have developed a method to avoid cell death due to premature termination of DNA replication using a DNA replication restart pathway. Previous research has determined that there are two proteins, PriA and PriB, that play an important roll in the replication restart pathway. Collectively, these enzymes bind to the DNA and facilitate reloading of the replication machinery in order to initiate replication without an origin sequence. The proposed study will look for possible inhibitors to the function of PriA and PriB and will also explore the method through which these inhibitors function. These inhibitors could potentially be developed into novel antibiotics against N. gonorrhoeae.
Internet risk awareness as a mediator for the relationship between age and privacy settings on Facebook
Anna J. Scott
Facebook's increasing popularity among college students has caused new issues regarding privacy on a website whose major aim is to foster communication via personal information sharing. However, this is not consistent across all ages. In fact, research has shown that as a person's age increases, the amount of information they share on the internet generally decreases. A new direction in research is to understand why, which was the aim of this study. Sixty undergraduate students were given a validated questionnaire which investigated how concerned each individual is regarding their safety and privacy on the internet. This information was compared to each person's Facebook privacy settings which were recorded during the study, followed by an analysis of these results.
Biological transformation processes are widely used in wastewater treatment, where those processes are dependent on mixed microorganisms, mainly bacteria. However, filamentous bacteria, a type of existing bacterial microorganisms in wastewater, need to be controlled to prevent excessive overgrowth that interferes with wastewater treatment. Current research on this program is seeking a biocontrol of filamentous bacteria via selective bacteriophages other than chemicals to protect other useful microbes. This project is to search for a number of phage groups that control the growth of specific filamentous bacteria in sludge production processes without interfering with the other bacteria. Samples were enriched for phage. Phages were isolated in one of two host bacteria and then selectivity tested against the other host. Sphaerotilus natans, a type of filamentous bacteria that is known in the activated sludge process, was used as the host with inoculating phages, as well as E.coli which may be common in wastewater treatment processes. Samples were obtained of supernatant from diverse treatment processes at various wastewater treatment plants. All the samples were thought to be good candidates since no article pointed out which process was better than the others. Other than the optimum control conditions regarding enrichment, maintenance and storage that is still being explored, the controls of growth, inoculation methods and storage of hosts would be recommended individually and compared with previous protocols.
Heather A. Schieman
Internationalization of college and university campuses is a growing trend around the country. In recent years the number of incoming international students has continually risen, creating an even more significant imbalance with the number of domestic students studying abroad. University faculty, who serve as a key factor in recruiting student participants, are often hesitant to get involved in international programs and curriculum integration. With that in mind, the intent of this research is to discover the motivational factors that bring faculty to international programming. The University of Dayton, and its long running faculty-led programs, has established a number of committed faculty members to the task of expanding the UD classroom to an international arena. Through analysis of individual interviews with faculty participants, across departments and disciplines, key themes were found for their involvement in international programming, as well as possible areas of improvement and continued support. By pinpointing the motivational factors that drive their involvement, as well as areas of concern, the intent of this research is to be able to create a framework for faculty development. In turn, recommending an environment that will increase participation by both the faculty and student populations in international programming.
Ashley M. Adamcik, Adam Barnas, Catherine E. Devlin, Eric M. Gammarino, Laura A. Janosko, Giuseppe G. Miranda
The question for this research is whether athletes, particularly those who compete on the intercollegiate level, have spatial abilities and better memory for location than non-athletes. The present experiment tested memory for location using stimuli consisting of a target presented among varying numbers of distracters (other target-like objects). In a second display for each trial, the target had moved. For each trial, participants remembered either the beginning or ending location of the target. We hypothesized that memory performance would decrease with an increase in the number of distracters. On the other hand, a landmark (such as a black stationary oval in the center of the display) would improve memory performance. We expected that the landmark would facilitate memory for the location of the target before and after movement by providing a reference for the application of mental spatial coordinates. We also expected that athletes would perform better on tasks of spatial intelligence due to their practice with understanding objects in a spatial layout, such as a football field or a basketball court. Preliminary analyses support these expectations although everyday memory, such as memory span, appears to be the same for athletes and non-athletes.
Kathleen M. Rusbacky
The metabolic equivalent (MET) is a concept that is very commonly used by health professionals to express levels of intensity of exercise, and it is applied often due to its ease of use. A MET is equal to the resting metabolic rate (RMR), defined as oxygen consumption (ml/min) per body weight (kg), and intensity of exercise is expressed in multiples of this. The predicated value of a MET is equal to 3.5 ml oxygen per kilogram of body weight per minute. This value was determined from obtaining the RMR through resting oxygen consumption of one male, 40 years old, weighing 70kg. Due to the widespread use of the MET concept, Byrne studied the RMR of 671 subjects. These subjects varied by gender, weight (35-186 kg), and in age (18-74 years old). The goal of this study was to observe the validity of the 3.5 ml/kg/min value of a MET. The results of the study by Byrne showed that the RMR, or MET value was actually 2.6 ml/kg/min. This study will examine the RMR via open circuit spirometry (oxygen consumption and carbon dioxide production) of 10 men ranging in age from 18-25. Five of these me will be cross country runners with a BMI in the normal range (18.5-24.9), and five of these men will be football players with a BMI in the obese class I range (30.0-34.9) with these ranges provided by the ACSM. This study will compare the RMR rates to the accepted 3.5 ml/kg/min, and the 2.6 ml/kg/min value established by Byrne. This study will also include values of resting oxygen consumption compared with body weight, the amount of fat mass, fat free mass, and BMI.
The purpose of this work is to understand electromagnetic plasmonic response and electron quantum confinement in an ellipsoidal metallic nanorod. The plasmon resonance of metallic nanorods displays geometric tunability controlled by the ratio of its minor to major axes. The surface plasmon resonance (SPR) of metallic nanorods (Ag, Au, Cu) based on Mie theory is studied for different geometries and physical environments. Moreover, we calculate the electron density of states for the nanowire geometry. Combining the density of state with the Fermi-Dirac distribution produces very sharp electron energy distribution. We present theoretical results based on SPR theory and the electron density of states. Our results are a first step in understanding more complex metal-insulator-metal structures for energy harvesting applications.
Jacob L. Rosen
Minor league baseball is a tradition unlike any other in the United States. But how have dozens of new stadiums, franchise relocations, the recent recession and more affected attendance numbers? Does over-saturation occur in specific metropolitan areas or states? What does the âhoneymoon effectâ of new stadiums look like for minor league teams? And what is the ideal region to plant a bourgeoning minor league franchise?This thesis looks at three groups of case studies from nine different visits with dozens of interviews conducted by the author. Using economic testing, it then explores the connections behind what makes minor league baseball a roaring success in areas like Dayton, Ohio, but a faltering product in areas like Scranton, Pa. In combining the recent history of the sport with the fine-tuned marketing and branding of the 21st century, this thesis looks to see how minor league baseball keeps getting stronger.
Adam D. Sitz
Understanding how mental resources are utilized for different tasks is crucial for optimizing performance and avoiding error. To this end, psychologists have identified several key dimensions that can be used to distinguish multiple mental resources. Such dimensions include, among others, the type of information presented in a task and the manner with which information is presented. The present experiment evaluated participant performance in the context of a single comprehension task comprised of two components each of which was matched with a distinct modality across conditions. One task component required participants to respond to critical signal phrases (example: Eagle 1 Hostile North Lead Group 43 Miles) as they were presented in a continuously updating list of neutral signal phrases (example: Viper 2 Contact North Trail Group 50 Miles). The other task component required participants to comprehend and retain news articles as they were presented over time. For every condition, each component was presented in one of two modalities, audio or text, such that all four possible combinations of task component (information type) and modality (manner of presentation) were examined. Evaluated together, the detection of critical signal phrases and retention of news article content (measured by means of a multiple-choice questionnaire) determined total task performance. My hypothesis predicted that the two combinations featuring incongruent (non-matching) presentation modalities would show better performance over the two congruent (matching) combinations of presentation modalities because of the shared use of multiple mental resources when the modalities were different. However, results indicate that in addition to cross modality interaction, the interaction between modality and task component was another necessary factor in predicting task performance. For example, because the task in this experiment requires comprehension of the written word, the longer information access time provided by the text modality has an advantage over the temporally limited audio modality.
Jessica L. Morell
Music is a part of our everyday lives and can affect us in many different ways. Music can have a great affect on the learning process. I have written a paper and have done a study that examines how listening to music can affect the learning and studying process. I did a study with fifty college students with different backgrounds, majors, study habits, ages, and genders. The study tests many of the different factors that are involved with how music can affect learning. The paper I have written includes all of my results and all of the research I have done about how music affects the learning and studying process.
Music Therapy and Evolving Sense of Hope Among At-Risk Adolescent Boys: A Qualitative Group Case Study Based on Yalom's Principles of Group Psychotherapy
Jacklyn P. Neforos, Joy M. Willenbrink
The evolution of group music therapy with at-risk adolescent young men will be described using Yalom's Stages of Group Development and Therapeutic Factors in the form of a group case study (Yalom, 2005). The young men participating in music therapy were residents of a home for young men ages 14-19 with behavioral, emotional, and mental health issues. Following an agreement with the University of Dayton, a music therapy practicum site was established, and music therapy groups were held twice weekly.A key influence throughout treatment was the role of group dynamics as a healing force. The music therapists recognized the presence of Yalom's Therapeutic Factors of group psychotherapy as meaningful analytical tools. These factors, recurrent during treatment, included universality, instillation of hope, cohesiveness, and catharsis, among others. Goals included development of self-efficacy, increased sense of hope, and increased self awareness and expression. Client input was utilized in establishing goals and structuring session experiences. These experiences included song composition, instrumental improvisation, instrumental re-creation, song communication, and song discussion (Bruscia, 1998).Clinical manifestations of Yalom's Therapeutic Factors will be shared through narrative and anecdotal examples. Session vignettes will further illustrate the treatment process, changing group dynamics, and the group reactions to various treatment methods and techniques. Professional growth and development of student music therapists will be described as a component of the treatment process. The intent of this case study is to provide a meaningful example of various treatment approaches and perspectives when working with young men from compromised backgrounds with emotional, behavioral and mental health issues, as well as encourage music therapy as a treatment modality in similar settings.Bruscia, K. E. (1998). Defining Music Therapy: 2nd Edition. Gilsum, NH: Barcelona Publishers.Yalom, I. D. (2005). The Theory and Practice of Group Psychotherapy: 5th Edition. New York: Basic Books.
Aj P. Ziegler
Increasingly, American companies are turning to overseas markets to grow top line revenue and bottom line earnings. The purpose of this study is to analyze revenue growth and revenue share trends for Flyer Fund stocks and overseas markets over the period 2005-2011. The primary objectives are to determine: 1) How many of the 55 Flyer Fund companies are selling overseas, 2) How fast is overseas revenue growing, 3) Is share of total revenue coming from overseas increasing?, 4) Are companies selling overseas experiencing growth in their share prices? Overseas revenue growth rates and revenue share percentages are calculated for each year as well as for the complete period. Stocks are also identified by industry/sector classifications. Results of the analysis are forthcoming.
Jonathan W. Lauden
Vehicle systems that store and retrieve energy have commonly relied on lead-acid or lithium-ion batteries as a storage medium. Springs are an alternative means of energy storage and could be used to supplement batteries in such systems. This would allow a reduction in the size of those batteries and the electric motors they operate, potentially accompanied with financial and environmental benefits. The general properties of springs suggest that they are well-suited for use in motor vehicle systems. Springs are able to provide a large amount of power relative to their size, and have the ability to store potential mechanical energy in a context where mechanical energy is required. In contrast, electrical energy-storage systems require additional motors and generators to apply or absorb mechanical energy. This research explores the utility of spring materials in automotive systems through the design and construction of a prototypical spring-based engine-starting system. The objectives are threefold: to determine the physical properties of several elastomers to assess their potential as energy-storage media, to derive the operating requirements and ideal size of a starting system from a production engine, and to design and build a prototype that is physically able to meet or exceed those operating requirements. Having accomplished these three objectives, the feasibility of using springs for other energy-storage systems may be explored, as well as the potential for large-scale production of such a system.
A numerical algorithm is developed to produce a numerical solution of a boundary value problem for the Black-Scholes partial differential equation on a certain region that includes a free boundary. In this algorithm, an artificial boundary is introduced and a method to find the free boundary is developed. This algorithm is introduced by H. Han and X.Wu, A Fast Numerical Method for the Black-Scholes Equation of American Option, SIAM J. Numer. Anal., 41 (2003), pp. 2081-2095.
Joshua R. Craven
In this project, I use computational tools to study the bifurcations in nonlinear oscillators. Matlab is first used to determine the slow flow phase portrait of each region and the characteristics of each critical point. Next, the parameters are discretized and for each set of values we find the locations of the real critical points and the eigenvalues of the Jacobian matrix. With this knowledge, we can approximate the bifurcation diagram. These results are compared with results from preexisting software.
Numerical Study of a Mathematical Model of IL-2 Adoptive Immunotherapy on Patients with Metastatic Melanoma
Alyssa C. Lesko
IL-2 treatments have recently been identified to significantly reduce metastatic melanoma tumors and in some cases eliminate them. The problem with these treatments is that a set plan of administration varies from patient to patient and methods for determining treatment steps are still in the process of being developed. Previous research by Asad Usman and colleagues has used a numerical technique using MATLAB to decide treatment protocols. This research used the MATLABâs built in ode15 function to addresses treatment procedures including the starting and stopping of each treatment and the period in between each treatment. Building on this data and existing model, my project will explore several other numerical techniques such as ode23 and ode45 solvers, Eulerâs method, and the predictor corrector method to study IL-2 treatments in metastatic melanoma patients. A comparison will be made using error plots and tables, and a stability analysis using pplane7 will be investigated.
At present there is a strong interest in the research community to develop large scale implementations of neuromorphic algorithms. These systems consume significant amounts of power, area, and are very expensive to build. This thesis examines the design space of multicore processors for accelerating neuromorphic algorithms. A new multicore chip will enable more efficient design of large scale neuromorphic computing systems. The algorithms examined in this thesis are the HMAX and Izhikevich models. HMAX was developed recently at MIT to model the visual system of the human brain. The Izhikevich model was presented by Izhikevich as a biologically accurate spiking neuron model. This thesis also examines the parallelization of the HMAX model for studying multicore architectures. The results show the best single core architectures for HMAX and Izhikevich are almost same, though HMAX needs more cache. The multicore study shows that the off chip memory bus width and physical memory latency could improve the performance of the multicore system.
Parental Sensitivity to Child Anxiety Problems: An Examination of Child, Family, and Demographic Influences
Jeannette M. Iskander
The present study examined family, child, and demographic influences on parents' decisions to carry out efforts to reduce their child's anxiety problems. The current study analyzed data from 363 families who participated in the Child Development Project (Dodge, Bates, & Pettit, 1990), a longitudinal study of social development. When children were 11 years old, parents were asked whether they had become concerned enough about their child'Âs anxiety in the last two years to begin an active campaign to help their child. Unadaptable (inhibited) child temperament, socioeconomic status, family stress, child gender, ethnicity, and mother-rated anxiety/depression from the Child Behavior Checklist served as predictors of parents' decision to mount a campaign. Predictors were measured at least one year before parents reported on their concerns about their children'Âs anxiety. Results from logistic regression analyses revealed that high levels of stress and unadaptability in infancy, as well as low SES were all associated with an increased probability that a mother would start a campaign to reduce her child'Âs anxiety problems. However, once the effect of child anxiety/depression on mother'Âs concern was statistically controlled, none of these variables were significantly associated with mothers'Â campaign efforts. Moderating effects of the child and family variables on the association between child anxiety/depression levels and mothers'ÃÂÃÂ decision to mount a campaign were also examined. Child gender was the only variable found to increase parental sensitivity to child anxiety/depression. The association between child anxiety/depression and motherÂs' concerns/campaigns efforts was stronger for girls than for boys. The results of this study suggest that child and family influences (e.g., stress, SES) on parents'decisions to respond to child anxiety may be explained by differences in child anxiety levels. In addition, the findings indicate that parents are more sensitive to levels of anxiety and depression in their daughters than in their sons.
Current cataractous lens replacement therapies require frequent medical checkups due to the potential formation of secondary cataracts as a result of the transdifferentiation of residual lens epithelial cells to mesenchymal myofibroblast cells (EMT). To prevent EMT, current treatments include laser therapy or the administration of anti-fibrotic drugs. Recently, Poly-epsilon-caprolactone (PCL) has become a popular material for tissue replacement therapy due to its relative durability compared to other biomaterials. For instance, the use of PCL as a nanofibrous scaffold offers a novel tool to model the complex architecture of different tissue types including skin, bone, cartilage, muscle, and brain cells. This study examines the suitability of PCL nanofibers for lens tissue engineering and lens replacement therapies. In an attempt to create a more organized lens fiber alignment without the risk of EMT, this study tests the use of aligned PCL nanofibers as a potential artificial lens matrix for cellular ingrowth and lens epithelial cells differentiation into lens fiber cells.
Steven A. Bare, Adam Barnas, Brittany L. Bernard, Nnimnoabasi E. Essien, Christian L. Sutphin
Vigilance, or sustained attention, typically requires observers to monitor for infrequent critical signals over extended periods of time (Warm, 2003). Critical signals are presented differently than the more frequent neutral signals that we experience in perception and are typically indications of impending danger that demand attention. Past research has proposed that the decline in vigilance as an attention task continues for some time and is caused by mindlessness, or withdrawal of attention from the monitoring task (Robertson et al., 1997). The present research investigates the ability to detect changes in visual stimuli. Participants will be presented with sets of stimuli containing four arrows facing the same clockwise or counter-clockwise direction in a circle. Participants will respond when a set has one arrow facing the opposite direction from the other three. In addition, participants will be queried about their confidence in the accuracy of their detections. Our expectation is consistent with the typical decline in attention over monitoring time; that is, confidence will also diminish as the vigilance task continues. The results of the present study can be applied to any situation requiring sustained monitoring of informational displays. For example, pilots and technicians are required to monitor streams of visual and auditory stimuli for prolonged periods of time where the consequence of not detecting a critical signal could be catastrophic. Understanding more about vigilance processes can help avoid disaster.