Emily M. Anteau, Jared Michael Beach, Benjamin McKiernan Blincoe, Maya Elizabeth Gerker, Laura J. Harris
Internal Material Logistics Optimization
Samantha Jean Berkley, Jonathan M. Colwell, Madeline E. Filiatraut, Maleia Mae Hartman, Kayte Lynn Jackson, Victoria Marie Jason, Emily I. Johnson, Gretchen M. Lozowski, Michael Josef Mueller, Melissa M. Padera, Cailyn A. Spedding, Shannon Marie Stanforth, Claire C. Sullivan
The aim of the River Stewards Cohort of 2021 Senior Capstone project is to develop a storm drain mural wayfinding path that will create awareness surrounding the storm drains and their drainage to the river. In addition, the project serves to connect the University of Dayton campus and Dayton community to the Great Miami River. The path begins in the University of Dayton Student Neighborhood, continuing across Main Street on Old River Drive, and concluding at the Great Miami River. The collaborative efforts of the Fitz Center for Leadership in Community, City of Dayton Engineering and Water Department, Dayton community members, and University of Dayton faculty, staff, and students were instrumental in the success of this project.
Role of Motif 1 Binding Protein (M1BP), a transcriptional pausing transcription factor in JNK-mediated cell death during eye development
Anuradha Chimata Venkatakrishnan, Hannah Paige Darnell
In all multicellular organisms, transcriptional regulation is crucial to regulate differential gene expression, which is important during development and growth. Transcriptional pausing is one such mechanism used to control gene expression. Recently, we have shown that M1BP, a transcriptional pausing transcription factor, promotes eye development by suppressing wingless (wg) expression. We also showed that M1BP regulates caspase-mediated cell death that is triggered by wg induction. M1BP is a functional homolog of ZKSCAN3, an autophagy repressor in humans. Jun-amino-terminal-(NH2)-Kinase (JNK) signaling is a pro-death pathway that is known to activate caspase-mediated cell death. We hypothesize that M1BP could have a role in mediating cell death via JNK signaling during eye development. In our studies, we explore the modulation of JNK signaling and its effect on M1BP mediated cell death by using the GAL4-UAS system. We present preliminary data that shows that the absence of M1BP function results in activation of autophagic cell death markers and JNK signaling.
Running Through My Life: An Autoethnographic Look at the Role of Sport and Media in the Development of Body Image in Female Athletes
Katie Lynn Cantlin
The main purpose of this autoethnographic study is to examine the influence of women’s beauty ideals on athletes’ body image and self-concept, with particular consideration of adolescent development. By using autoethnography to connect my personal experiences growing up as a distance runner with the current literature surrounding social judgment theory, the thin-ideal, and the feelings of overall dissatisfaction women in sports have about their bodies, this study calls for the reconsideration of what is considered beautiful in sports and society. Utilizing the reflexivity, vulnerability, and personal documentation involved in autoethnography, this paper breaks down various struggles young girls and adult women face from both societal ideals and the world of athletics. This piece emerged from a gender and communication course and notes the central role communication plays in establishing the norms surrounding women and athletes in society.
Searching for Antimicrobial Activities in Soil Bacteria: The Biochemical Test Results For My Isolates
Ibrahim Khaleel Alsulaimani
In the BIO 411L course, I participated in a research project to look for bacteria from soil that have antimicrobial activities. To characterize the bacterial isolates, I performed identification experiments based on their biochemical abilities. These experiments include Gram staining to distinguish between Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Additional experiments include differentiation on the basis of (1) their metabolic activities through protein, carbohydrate and enzyme production and utilization; (2) erythrocyte lysis analysis; and (3) catalase test. In addition to learning about these biochemical assays, I also learned about how common contamination was in microbiology lab and how contamination could interfere with our experimental results.
Atmospheric silver corrosion was examined by galvanostatic reduction, as part of a larger study attempting to model corrosion damage on various metals based on exposure location, time, and conditions. Silver coupons were exposed for a specific amount of time (3-18 months) in different beachfront locations in Florida. These coupons were brought back and the resulting corrosion films were characterized with regards to their chemical composition. The presence of a specific chemical compound (e.g. silver chloride) on the silver coupon is determined through an electrochemical reduction of the coupon. The reduction is the result of the application of a constant current applied to the silver coupon, resulting in a measured voltage that is specific for each chemical compound on the coupon surface. A three-electrode cell was used for the reduction process, with the silver coupon as the working electrode, a platinum mesh as the counter electrode, and a mercurous sulfate electrode (MSE) as the reference, all immersed in a sodium sulfate electrolyte. Using a computer controlled potentiostat, a graphical plot of voltage vs. time was generated. The amount of time that the potential remains at a constant value indicates the reduction of a single chemical species on the surface. This time is then converted to film thickness and is analyzed across the different exposure times and locations. Increasing exposure times of the coupons in the field locations showed increasing chloride film thickness, and exposure at different field sites showed different silver chloride film growth rates. Additionally, seasonal exposure condition changes at each site were observed to result in changes in the chloride film growth rate. These findings will assist in the development of accelerated exposure testing and corrosion modeling for other metals.
Jared L. Dunn
This research involves the simulation and physical testing of a novel compliant bistable mechanism. Bistable mechanisms are commonly used in switches and other devices that operate in two distinct modes. The mechanism being developed is a single monolithic structure with simple geometry and does not require external components or post-manufacturing at large, or micro, scales. The goal of this research is to develop and refine a simulation process for this mechanism that accurately reflects the internal friction and large displacement caused by this compliant style of actuation. A prototype is presented to facilitate force and displacement measurements to compare against simulation results. The simulation and experimentation will be used to refine a set of scalable design equations for the compliant bistable mechanism.
Khalid Saleh Aldhahri
Resin transfer modeling (RTM) is increasingly used to produce composite materials for several applications. One of the challenges with the manufacturing process is how to fully impregnate the fiber preform in the mold with resin. Limited research has been conducted to investigate the resin flow behavior in critical regions of complex geometry such as the junction between the flange and web in T-joints, referred to as a deltoid (based on shape) or the noodle region (based on the approach used to fill the region with rolled-up fabric). Various approaches taken with respect to manufacturing T-joints include filling such critical regions which insert metal or use rolled-up fabric. However, by using tightly rolled-up fabric a new issue is introduced which relates to fabric permeability differences between the noodle region and main composite structure. This can lead to resin short-circuiting the noodle region prior to its filling, leaving voids in this area. One of the solutions to this problem before designing the mold and selecting process conditions is using computer simulation. This allows for initial viewing of the expected flow patterns and cure profiles before the actual resin injection. In this research, numerical modeling was conducted using PAM-RTM software included a carbon fiber fabric preform, a carbon fabric noodle with various permeability values, and Hexcel RTM6 epoxy resin. The software was used to simulate the isothermal infusion process, as well as the temperature distribution of the mold during infusion and subsequent curing process. Finally, the PAM-Distortion module was used to predict the distortion of the T-Joint after cure due to cure shrinkage and thermal contraction. This is important because in the processing of composite materials, the final geometry is often slightly different than the mold shape after removal due to process induced distortions, which is referred to as either spring-in or spring-back.
Ajith Kumar Veeraboina
Additive manufacturing (AM), popularly known as 3D printing, is a technology used to produce a physical part directly from its corresponding digital 3D model design. Existing 3D printing techniques are based on the gantry system and are limited to only three degrees of freedom. The printing is possible only in uni-directional and is anisotropic when force is applied to the printed part. Complex 3D models with overhanging features need support structures in uni-directional printing. In this work, we develop a novel process that addresses the limitations of conventional 3D printing by using two 6DOF manipulators. A simulation model of the manipulators is designed in the Motosim software and build an experimental setup. By replacing the gantry system with one or two 6DOF industrial robotic arms, it will have additional degrees of freedom for multidirectional printing. Furthermore, the support structures can be avoided, and the printed part mechanical properties can be improved.
Spectral dependence of the Verdet coefficients of Terbium Gallium Garnet and Potassium Terbium Fluoride
High power laser systems require the use of optical isolators to prevent coupling of reflected light into the pump laser. Terbium Gallium Garnet (TGG) and Potassium Terbium Fluoride (KTF) are materials used as optical isolators and while they have been grown for many years, advances in crystal growth and processing make a new set of measurements of the Verdet coefficients of these materials desirable. We present new measurements of the Verdet coefficients of TGG and KTF from 0.405 μ to 1.55 μ and derive expressions for the spectral behavior of the Verdet coefficients.
Spectrum of Inclusion: How attitudes towards women’s leadership in Christian religious communities affect their autonomy and approach in ministry
Emma K. Merryman, Kevin O'Gorman, Olivia Brooke Parson, Natalie Marie Yersavich
The roles and levels of autonomy given to women in religious leadership cannot be seen solely as a theological or even denominational split. Rather, the different levels of inclusion fall along a spectrum that is truly unique to each religious community. The spectrum ranges from a strictly traditional attitude that places women in more limited roles with less organizational autonomy to a liberal interpretation which understands the inclusion of women as a broader ideological mission. Traditional communities, especially within certain Catholic parishes, heavily identify organizational direction and leadership with male priests or pastors, with women working in service-oriented roles. Women have a particularly maternal focus in their ministries and are actively discouraged when taking on approaches outside of expectations. Conversely, liberal communities do not confine female leadership roles to specific ministries, but instead, promote inclusion in all aspects of church culture. Female involvement is supported and promoted both structurally and theologically by all faith communities researched in this project. However, the specific ways in which they identify along the spectrum fundamentally alters the amount of autonomy given to women and how they approach their ministries. Discussion ranges from Catholic religious sisters to Evangelical pastors and volunteers, respecting their individual faith traditions while critically analyzing their placement along our spectrum. By comparing these examples from a variety of sociological, anthropological, and psychological perspectives, this presentation aims to provide insight into how the broader Christian faith communities affect the work of women in ministry.
Elizabeth Jean House
This research project discusses gender inequality in sports. It identifies the intersection between law and sports and investigates how the law fosters unequal treatment of women. The research question is addressed through a compilation of case studies and supporting legal research. The findings of this research support the conclusion that women experience gross dissimilarities in both treatment and pay in sports. This study raises relevant questions about discrimination in the legal system on a broader scale.
Niani Brown, Grace Elizabeth Roberts Huff, Taylor Mackenzie Tomco
Leaf phenology, the study of patterns in leaf emergence, serves as crucial evidence for changes in climate and habitats. Invasive plant species tend to leaf out first in the spring and often out compete native species, changing the landscape. Thus the importance of understanding what conditions drive leaf out in invasive species. We determined how the timing of leaf out in the spring was predicted by abiotic characteristics like temperature, photoperiodic changes, and moisture. The buds of two invasive species were examined in this experiment in order to determine the average leaf out time for each species, as well as the soil composition to better understand what conditions affect their leaf out rates. We predicted that bush honeysuckle (Lonicera tatarica) and Callery Pear (Pyrus calleryana) growing in more moist soils with more open canopy will leaf out earlier than those in drier soils with more canopy cover and that leaf out rates will increase with an increase in temperature. For each species, five individuals at Old River Park were randomly selected as the focus of the study. The length of ten buds per individual were measured a total of six times over the course of three weeks for a total of 600 leaf measurements. Canopy cover, daily temperature, day length, and humidity were also recorded. A soil sample was collected once for each individual plant and analyzed for pH, conductivity, and amount of moisture present. From our findings, we hope to gain a better understanding of when invasive species like honeysuckle and Callery pear at Old River Park’s Ecological Research Area in Dayton, Ohio come out of dormancy and whether soil characteristics have an influence on this process.
Julia P. Bagdon, Kyle A. Brun, Abigail Rae Bruns, Zachary T. Hamant, Bridget Angela Helmstetter, Sierra Y. Johnson, Jayda M. Malloy, Yamilet Perez Aragon, Kara G. Posniewski, Erin Marie Rafter, Paul F. Scheeler, Caleb P. Stalder, Anastasia B. Stowers, Emma Elizabeth Walbaum, Jillian Whitson, John M. Wischmeyer
On January 6 of this year a mob stormed the U.S. Capitol building in an effort to disrupt the peaceful transfer of power from one political party to another, the hallmark of American democracy for more than 200 years. In an effort to both reflect upon this immediate past, as well as think deeply about where we go as a democracy, the Conversations on American Democracy Working Group is sponsoring a poster contest during the Stander Symposium.Submissions address the question of What does American democracy mean to you? Students can respond to this question in a variety of ways, including but not restricted to the following: Personal story that reflects your perspective on democracy in America; Meaningful American events, people, places (past and present); Reactions to significant public events (examples: 9/11, January 6 Capitol Breach, 2020 Presidential election); Emotions and feelings associated with American democracy; Ways in which democracy can be improved; and Important actions associated with democratic life (examples: voting, free speech, military enlistment)Most work at Stander is generated through the classroom or in collaboration with a faculty mentor; however, this contest is unique and different. Because this approach differs from traditional Stander Symposium participation, and to encourage participation, there will be a $500 scholarship for Fall 2021 awarded to the top three presentations. Presentations will be judged by a panel of faculty and students for clarity, creativeness, cohesiveness, and use of evidence to support claims.
Sarah Elizabeth Angeloff, Matthew D. Brenneman, Nathan J. Campbell, Kevin Padraic Cavanaugh
Development Scheduling System of sTEM Kids, Teaching Resources, and Facilities
Kayla N. Burdette
The goal of this project is to explore how stigma influences the recovery process of individuals who use drugs. In the past two decades the number of drug overdoses has increased for all age groups. According to the CDC, from 2016 to 2017 the number of drug related overdoses increased 45% (2018). More and more people are becoming physically dependent on these substances. Recovery can be impacted by a number of factors including internal and external stigma as well as various complications with the criminal justice system. The data came from 26 interviews with people involved with the Cache Valley Drug Court in 2016, accessed through the USU Digital History Collections which is publicly available online. NVivo was used to facilitate the qualitative coding process. Results indicate that although drug court can offer supportive services, some find the process overly complicated. Results also identify the impact of stigma on recovering individuals.
Fouad O. Saleh
Stock Returns and Safe Interest Rates: An Empirical Analysis, 2001 – 2019Modern Finance Theory postulates that the intrinsic value of a firm's publicly traded common stock is equal to the discounted value of future cash flows or dividends. Holding cash flows constant, the intrinsic value depends on the interest rate at which the cash flows are discounted. A rise in the discount rate lowers the intrinsic value while a decrease in the discount rate increases the intrinsic value.In this study, I looked at the empirical relationship between intermediate and long-term treasury rates and the stock market as measured by the S&P 500 index. The period of analysis is 2001 – 2019 with a special focus on the empirical relationship pre and post 2008 recession. I use univariate regression analysis with the S&P 500 Index, or SPY, (in logs) as the Y variable and the intermediate (Treasury Notes) and Long-term (Treasury Bonds), also in logs, as the x variables. The hypothesis tested:1.The regression slope coefficients are statistically significant at the 95% confidence levels2.There is a recession effect i.e., the pre and post 2008 recession, slope coefficients are significantly different3.Since the long-term trend in treasury rates is downward sloping, the slope coefficients are positive i.e., lowering the discount rate results in rising stock prices.
William Edward Bronsil, John Richard Coffey, Mary Bliss Stitzel
In mid-February 2020, the stock market declined sharply due to the COVID-19 pandemic. In late March 2020, many stocks bottomed out and the market started a first stage rebound that ended in August 2020. In this study we selected the top ten stocks (by market value) in the S&P 500 consumer discretionary sector to measure their rate of decline and rebound for the above period of time. Using time trend regressions we take the regression slope coefficients as the rates of growth measure and then develop an uptrend/downtrend growth ratio which acts as a portfolio weight for each of the ten stocks. We then test the following hypotheses: (1) The higher the growth ratio the higher the return for a given stock thru the end of 2020. (2) As a portfolio of stocks with the growth ratio as the principal factor loading, the portfolio return out performs the market return thru 2020. (3) The ten stock portfolio shows persistence in returns throughout 2020.
Structure-function analysis of Defective proventriculus (Dve) in Drosophila melanogaster eye growth and development
Anuradha Chimata Venkatakrishnan
During development, axial patterning is required to establish Antero-posterior (AP), Dorso-Ventral (DV), and Proximo-Distal (PD) axes, which is crucial for the generation of a 3-dimensional organ from a monolayer organ primordium. Of the three axes, DV axis is the first lineage restriction event during eye development and any deviation results in developmental birth defects. In our study, we have used Drosophila melanogaster (Fruit fly) eye as a model system to understand the role of different domains of a new dorsal eye fate selector gene, defective proventriculus (dve, an ortholog of SATB1) in growth and development. In humans, SATB1, functions as a transcriptional regulator and chromatin organizer and requires tetramerization by the ULD domain. In Drosophila eye, dve regulates expression of wingless (wg), a negative regulator of eye. In the genetic hierarchy, dve acts downstream of GATA-1 transcription factor pannier (pnr) and upstream of wg. Loss-of-function of dve results in dorsal eye enlargement while gain-of-function results in eye suppression. We performed structure function analysis of Dve protein to elucidate the role of various domains in patterning, growth and development. We have developed several transgenic lines, which will allow us to induce expression of the specific domains of Dve protein and assay their effect on Drosophila eye growth and development. Dve has a ULD domain for tetramerization, HOX domains for DNA binding and PPP4R2 domain for H2AFX dephosphorylation. Here we present our results on ectopic induction of these domains and their effect on eye phenotype and wg expression in the developing eye.
Natalia Sophia Bernard, Isabel Eva Neal
The prevalence of sexual assault on college campuses remains high among undergraduate college students, which begs the question of how well do these students understand its legal definition. This study set out to understand the definitions of sexual assault from a college student perspective. Specifically, the current study aimed to explore if gender differences existed between males and females in how well they understood the legal definition of sexual assault. A cross-sectional survey design employed online was used to inquire about college students' agreement with specific sexual assault definitions. An independent t-test was conducted across all 10 questions. Results show that gender differences existed for all but one question. Implications of this study will be discussed.
Noah T. Caster, Nicolas Ryan Spieker
Our research project covers how students at the University of Dayton perceive crime and police presence on and around campus. The project compares student perceptions to the reality of crime in the area. We also showed how perceptions of police presence relate to crime data for the area. Our research aims to solve student perceptions of crime at the University of Dayton and make students aware of where crime is really happening.
Studying the Interaction between Dorsal Patterning Gene Defective Proventriculus (dve) and Hedgehog Morphogen Signaling in Drosophila Eye Development
Anuradha Chimata Venkatakrishnan, Summer Hope Jento
Organogenesis is a fundamental process required to form organs. It requires axial patterning for the transition of monolayer of cells to an adult organ and involves the delineation of Anterior-Posterior (AP), Dorso-Ventral (DV), Proximo-Distal (PD) axes. Drosophila melanogaster is a great model to study this process because the genes and pathways are highly conserved in humans. During eye development, the DV axis is the first to form, and deviations during this process result in developmental birth defects. We have previously identified defective proventriculus (dve), a transcription factor as a dorsal selector gene that regulates wingless during eye development. Morphogens like wingless (wg), hedgehog (hh), and decapentaplegic (dpp) have important roles during eye development. The Hh pathway is highly conserved in mammals and has a role in growth and development. According to our hypothesis, dve interacts with Hedgehog signaling pathway during eye development and may have a role in eye vs. head fate specification. Using the Drosophila eye as a model, we study the interaction between dve and hh to understand the role of Hh signaling. We have used the GAL4-UAS bipartite system to modulate Hh signaling in the dve domain. We will be presenting the results from our initial studies. This study will further our understanding of patterning defects and the basis of genetic birth defects in the eye.
Shannon Marie Stanforth
Sustainability encompasses the three spheres of the environment, society and the economy—demonstrating its interconnected complexities and multifaceted applications. Similarly, graphic design can be used as a tool to illuminate issues and highlight the importance of a wide variety of themes which necessitate the attention of the current public. In pursuing my thesis, I aimed to develop a project which would reflect the ideals of sustainability while simultaneously serving to educate about the importance of caring for the natural world. Furthermore, my research explores how the disciplines of sustainability and design overlap and interact, searching to discover ways in which they may be linked for the purpose of education and inspiration. The medium of a children’s book introduced me to one creative avenue for combining the fields and realizing this aspiration.
Karishma Sanjay Gangwani
Glioblastoma Multiforme (GBM) is the most common form of malignant brain tumor with a poor prognosis. Amplification of Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR), and mutations leading to activation of Phosphatidyl-Inositol-3 Kinase (PI3K) pathway are commonly associated with GBM. Using a previously published Drosophila glioma model generated by coactivation of PI3K and EGFR pathways [by downregulation of Pten and overexpression of oncogenic Ras] in glial cells, we showed that the Drosophila Tep1 gene (ortholog of human CD109) regulates Yki (the Drosophila ortholog of human YAP/TAZ) via an evolutionarily conserved mechanism. Oncogenic signaling by the YAP/TAZ pathway occurs in cells that acquire CD109 expression in response to the inflammatory environment induced by radiation in clinically relevant models. Further, downregulation of Tep1 caused a reduction in Yki activity and reduced glioma growth. A key function of Yki in larval CNS is stem cell renewal and formation of neuroblasts. Other reports suggest different upstream regulators of Yki activity in the optic lobe versus the central brain regions of the larval CNS. We hypothesized that Tep1 interacts with the Hippo pathway effector Yki to regulate neuroblast numbers. We tested if Tep1 acts through Yki to affect glioma growth and if in normal cells Tep1 affects neuroblast number and proliferation. Our data suggest that Tep1 affects Yki mediated stem cell renewal in glioma, as reduction of Tep significantly decreases the number of neuroblasts in glioma. Thus, we identify Tep1-Yki interaction in the larval CNS that plays a key role in gliomagrowth and progression.
The adaptation of a youth nutrition and cooking-skill program to a virtual, online format: Development, implementation and evaluation
Holly Faith Nusser, Emilia Jelski Porter
Skill-based factors such as food preparation contribute to dietary intake and behavior. Studies show introducing nutrition and cooking skills early in life can positively impact dietary intake. However, due to COVID-19, in-person nutrition and cooking-skill classes within schools and afterschool programs became challenging. Therefore, in partnership with East End Community Center, the Wright Brother’s Middle School Pilot’s program, and the University of Dayton’s dietetics and Hanley Sustainability Institute, two UD dietetic students developed and piloted a six-week virtual cooking and nutrition class for 7-8th graders attending the after school Pilots program at Wright Brothers Middle School. Thirteen middle school students participated in the program. Since Dayton Public School moved to entirely remote learning from March of 2020 to March 2021, a nutrition and cooking curriculum was adapted for a virtual platform and the middle school students attended the cooking class from within the kitchen of their home. From the Produce 1 Food Lab on the UD campus, the dietetic students used the zoom platform to implement one-hour weekly nutrition and cooking class to the students. Further, a representative from East End Community Center delivered ingredients needed for the weekly recipe(s) as well as extra supplies such as measuring cups to the middle school students. Data was collected to measure the process and impact of the virtual classes including attendance and nutrition and cooking knowledge pre- and post-test scores. For this presentation, the program procedures and evaluation will be presented.