Traditionally science and technology have been fields in which almost no women were employed. In recent years increasing numbers of women have been attempting to enter these fields. Affirmative action, equal opportunity and similar legislation have been enacted in an attempt to facilitate the entry of women. One of the purposes of this paper is to report briefly on a study designed to evaluate the success of women pursuing scientific careers. Since the results of this study are not encouraging, we are led to question why. The answer is likely a combination of many factors. One argument, which is invoked in response to this question, is that which claims that innate differences, besides the obvious physical ones, exist between the sexes and account for women's apparent inability to progress in scientific careers on a basis equal to that of men. The major portion of this paper will be concerned with this controversial issue.



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