The Brother Joseph W. Stander Symposium recognizes and celebrates academic excellence in undergraduate and graduate education. This annual event provides an opportunity for students from all disciplines to showcase their intellectual and artistic accomplishments. The Stander Symposium represents the Marianist tradition of education through community and is the principal campus-wide event in which faculty and students actualize our mission to be a "community of learners."
Christopher G. Yakopcic
Human homeostasis is the body's ability to physiologically regulate its inner environment to ensure its stability in response to changes in the outside environment. An inability to maintain homeostasis may lead to death or disease, which is caused by a condition known as homeostatic imbalance. Normal cells follow the homeostasis when they proliferate and cancer cells do not. This work describes a model consisting of three reaction-diffusion equations representing in vitro interaction between two drugs. One inhibits proliferation of cancerous cells, and the other destroys these cells. A stability analysis of the model is performed with and without diffusion applied to the model. MATLAB is used to perform the stability analysis of the model.
Christopher M. Johnson
High-risk alcohol use is a concern on college campuses. It has been suggested that participation in student activities can impact high-risk drinking (Harvard, 2001). This study examines possible correlations between alcohol consumption and a studentâs involvement in campus activities and student organizations at the University of Dayton. Previous studies at other universities have been inconclusive, as campus and organizational culture can differ greatly from institution to institution. This correlational research study measures student involvement and alcohol use, using data collected on a survey combining the Educational Benchmarking, Inc. (EBI) and Association of College Unions International (ACUI) Student Activities Assessment and the World Health Organization Alcohol Use and Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT). The study investigates multiple variables for measuring student involvement, including number of organizations/events involved in and time spent in an organization, as well as two factors related to alcohol, alcohol consumption and alcohol-related consequences. Results of the study will indicate the relationship of student involvement and alcohol consumption at UD, and open the door to further research on specific populations.
BaShaun H. Smith
With the research of the Alcohol Task Force at the University of Dayton, professionals realize that there is an epidemic of high alcohol consumption by some students on Dayton's campus. The purpose of this study was to better understand students'ÂÂ perceptions of their drinking patterns with a specific focus on alcohol induced blackouts. This study focused on college students at the University of Dayton, a mid-size Catholic institution in the Midwest. The students who were surveyed ranged from first year students to seniors. Two populations of students were surveyed. These included a purposeful sample of students who had an alcohol related sanction in Community Wellness and a convenience sample of students enrolled in English classes at Dayton. The survey asked a series of questions regarding their use of alcohol, family history, frequency, and awareness of their own experiences of blackouts and those of others. The survey allowed students to reflect on their past experience as it pertains to alcohol induced blackouts.
Support, Commitment, and Persistence: Are Students in Supportive Academic Programs More Committed to Their Institutions?
Twila G. Murray
Institutional commitment has been shown to be highly predictive of college student retention (Bean, 1980; Woosley & Miller, 2009). Research indicates that highly supportive academic programs with a career-related focus are associated with higher retention rates (Nitecki, 2011). Furthermore, academic and social integration have been related to retention through the mediating influences of institutional commitment (Beal, Reison, Zea, & Caplan, 1999). This study used a survey method to investigate whether students who are enrolled in a supportive academic program -- one promoting academic and social integration -- demonstrate higher levels of institutional commitment than students who are enrolled in a less supportive general education program. The study was conducted at Clark State Community College and contains data from undergraduate students in the Agriculture/Horticulture Technologies programs and the Associate of Arts program. Additional analysis was performed to determine the extent to which other demographic factors contribute to mean institutional commitment scores among various sub-populations across a wide variety of academic programs.
An important part of motherhood is having a network of support. For women in university faculty, this is especially important but also especially challenging due to the nature of their work and the general circumstances of working in a field dominated by men. Through firsthand accounts of mothers in faculty positions at the University of Dayton, this paper explores the experiences of mothers and the importance of establishing a support network in raising a family and succeeding in their careers. Through these experiences, opportunities to improve the circumstances for mothers in a university faculty setting and to provide them support can be examined.
Agitation is a critical aspect of many processes, such as food production, mineral processing, and water treatment, with liquid-solid agitators representing a significant portion of all agitation installations. This research is concerned with solids suspension in a liquid-solid stirred tank at one particular agitation level â just-suspended condition in which no solids rest on the tank base for longer than one to two seconds. The novelty of this work is that though there have been many studies on the just-suspended speed of uniform solid (solid particles with same shape, size, and density), there has been very little work in the industrially important area of mixtures of solids with different physical properties. The goal of this work is to investigate whether sum of the individual solids suspension powers approach can provide a reasonable estimate of mixture just-suspended speed of solids with different physical characteristics. All tested mixtures of solids with different properties (particle size, shape, and specific gravity) are categorized into three different groups based on the specific gravities of individual solids in each system: systems where the specific gravities of both solids are below 1.5 grams per cubic centimeter (i.e. low-density system), both solid densities are above 2.4 grams per cubic centimeter (i.e. high-density system), and solids of mixed densities - that is, a solid with low density plus a solid with high density. It is found that the sum of powers approach can acceptably predict the just-suspended speed of both high-density and mixed-density solids systems while the predicted speeds from summing the individual solids suspension powers are typically ten to twenty percent greater than the measured speeds of low-density solids systems.
Carbon is very versatile element with various allotropic forms such as graphite, diamond, nanotubes and fullerene. While new carbon structures have been discovered, coiled shaped carbon fibers, or carbon microcoils (CMCs) might be potential materials for micro heating element for medical treatment, fabricating tunable electronics, bio-activators and fillers for composites.In this study, CMCs were prepared by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) technique using nickel catalyst in gas mixture (acetylene, hydrogen and argon) with a small amount of sulfur additives. The effect of temperature, time, gas flow rate and sulfur additive on the growth of CMCs formation were explored. It is found that the micro-coils quality and their uniformity are strongly depended on the amount of sulfur additive and temperature. CMCs were characterized using scanning electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction and micro Raman techniques. For biological application, CMCs were functionalized to improve their water solubility and their toxicity was tested using mouse embryonic stem (MES) cells. The toxicity of CMCs was evaluated by phase contrast, alkaline phosphatase (AP) staining assay and JC1 mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) assay. The results indicated that CMCs have very limited impact to MES cells properties, and the medical application of CMCs will be safe.
Branden J. King
Optical fibers have been used for detection of analytes in aqueous and vapor phases by assessing changing light transmission parameters resulting from biomolecular interactions occurring on fiber surfaces. The primary objective of this study is to refine the optical fiber design by tapering the fiber to modify the light path for enhanced detection of vapor phase analytes at very low concentrations, particularly volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The typical light path through a single mode fiber with cladding results in low loss of light from the fiber. Tapering the fiber removes the cladding, thins the diameter of the fiber core, and results in net loss of light from the core of the fiber. Lost light (photons) exists as a wave along the surface of the tapered fiber. Molecular binding events on the surface of the taper result in disruption of the light path which is measurable as a change in refraction/intensity.Single mode optical fibers have been tapered from 125 microns to 10-15 microns in diameter via heat treatment and pulling of fibers. Tapered regions serve as the sensing interface, such that the light propagating through/around the fiber can interact with molecules tethered to the surface. Tapered regions will be functionalized with biomolecules for capture/detection of analytes in both aqueous (antibody) and vapor phase (DNA, peptide recognition molecules). Interaction of recognition molecules with analytes will cause a change in the molecular structure at the tapered surface. We posit that these changes will affect light passing through the fiber and will result in a characteristic spectral fingerprint indicative of the analyte. Future work will focus on refinement of surface chemistry to maximize molecular interactions for detection of low concentrations of analytes. We envision the use of tapered optical fibers in array format for detection of multiple analytes in complex samples.
The Challenges, Frustrations, Triumphs and Terrors of Starting and Maintaining a Social Justice Club at UD.
Lindsey M. Callihan, Hillary A. Cook, Kyle S. Fischer, Patrick T. Gannon, Morgan A. Hale, Ryan D. Hunn
The Social Justice Club is one of the University of Dayton's newest student organizations that was created with one goal in mind: How best to support the Social Justice LLC initiative. Starting a new service organization is truly an altruistic goal, but it comes with a lot more challenges than most students and administrators realize. Our greatest strength is supporting the importance of community service and civic engagement. This presentation will honestly discuss the challenges associated with maintaining membership and initiating leadership roles within an organization. We will openly examine the challenges, the stresses, and frankly, the potential for failure of a first-year organization. In the true spirit of perseverance and the Marianist model of Lead, Learn, and Serve, with a heavy emphasis on the learning aspect of our initiative, we will outline our new strategies for increasing membership, supporting and nurturing leadership, and maintaining the can-do attitude that makes us The Social Justice Club at UD.
The Effect of Context Upon the Perception of Egocentric Distance Using a Walkable Human Muller-Lyer Illusion
Natalie L. Anderson, Adam Barnas, Ryan N. Fuentes, Kevin Longacre, Natalya N. Lynn, Katherine Y. Peters, Nicole A. Schlater, Jeremy T. Schwob, Adam D. Sitz
The Muller-Lyer illusion is a well-known geometric illusion in which pairs of lines of the same length are perceived to be different because of forms (e.g. "finsÂ") at the ends of the lines. This influence of context upon the perception of line length is well-established for 2-D illusions but has also been demonstrated in larger-scale, three-dimensional spatial tasks (Wraga, Creem and Proffitt, 2000). Across three experiments, we utilized a large-scale, walkable variation of the Muller-Lyer illusion to examine the effect of context upon the perception of egocentric distances. Whereas the traditional Muller-Lyer illusion utilizes geometric forms at the end of lines to manipulate the context of the line, we employed human forms to manipulate context. In each experiment, participants viewed a human target facing either towards or away from them and were then asked to judge the distance to the target. We predicted that the facing direction of the human target would influence magnitude estimates of target distance, similar to the way geometric forms at the ends of lines influence judgments of line length. However, we also predicted that action-based indicators of perceived distance (e.g. walking to the previously-viewed target person with eyes closed) would not be influenced by the contextual information provided by the human target's facing direction. In Experiments 1 and 2, participants viewed human targets that were facing toward or away and then, with eyes closed, walked a distance that matched the perceived distance to the target person. Results from these experiments suggest that action-based indicators of perceived distance are immune to contextual influences of human target facing direction. In Experiment 3, participants will view human targets that are either facing toward or away, but will verbally estimate the distance to the target. Together, these results will speak to the role of contextual information in spatial perception.
Daniel J. Petit
The manipulation of available sensory inputs is an important component in static posturography testing to examine one's multisensory reweighting ability and to identify potential balance problems that would otherwise be masked by compensation. Traditionally, to reduce the availability of proprioceptive input, subjects are asked to stand barefoot on a foam pad placed on top of the force platform. However, the choice of what kind of foam block to use often falls on the shoulders of the investigator or clinician as it is rarely well defined in testing procedures. While previous studies have investigated the effect of varying foam types on outcome measures, it has not been well investigated whether choice of foam influences the ability to differentiate between healthy and impaired populations using posturography. Anterior-posterior (A/P) and medial-lateral center of pressure displacement data was collected using a 3-component force plate. Each trial lasted 30 seconds with a sampling rate of 1000Hz. For this protocol, a form of the modified clinical test for sensory integration of balance (mCTSIB) was used where a total of six trials were completed in randomized order. As expected, the surface did make a difference for all outcome measures (p>=0.001 for all). It was found that for Mean Velocity there was a statistically significant interaction (0.037), and for A/P Sway Range the p-value also approached significance (0.055). Post-hoc analysis for Mean Velocity revealed between-subject factor of disease was significant in each of the surface conditions, suggesting that while the values may be drastically different there is not currently compelling findings that the choice of foam better improves the ability to discriminate between disease states. As such, until standardization can be reached it does not appear to matter whether open-cell or closed-cell foam is used, but characteristics of the foam are important to report to allow study comparison.
Mary A. Untener
Microbial Fuel Cells (MFCs) provide a renewable way to produce electricity, while also doubling as a method to treat industrial waste water streams. Just like traditional H2 fuel cells, MFCs produce current by creating a flowing of electrons. In MFCs, unlike hydrogen fuel cells, the electrons are catalytically extracted by microorganisms from complex electron donors, making MFCs a sustainable energy source. This experiment examines the effect of the toxin, dinitrophenol, on the electrical output of a MFC using the bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa. DNP is a decoupler which destabilizes the lipid bilayer membrane, hypothetically increasing the production of reducing equivalents by the cell. Concentrations of the toxin were varied to determine the dose dependent response of the MFC. By improving the outputs achieved in an MFC and understanding the effects of toxins on MFC performance, this renewable energy technology is one step closer to being functional on a large scale.
The Effect of Heat Treatment and Surface Functionalization on the Bio-Kinetic Behavior of Carbon Nanomaterials
Kevin M. Donnelly
Tissue engineering is a wide and rapidly growing field with many applications. As the field grows there has been a push to find improved materials to use in tissue scaffolds to improve their chemical and mechanical properties. Carbon nanomaterials have a wide variety of properties which could make them excellent scaffold materials. This study looks at four different carbon nanomaterials, which vary in size and heat treatment, to determine their respective cellular compatibilities and bio-kinetic effects. The study also tests the same materials with varying degrees of surface functionalization to determine its effect on the same cellular phenomenon.
Sara E. Mason, Nyssa L. Snow
The purpose of this study is to examine the effect of thin-ideal media on body image in college age women. The discrepancy between the ideal presented in the media and the reality for most individuals is thought to be a significant source of body dissatisfaction. Exposure to thin-ideal media may have negative effects on women's body image, but there are contradictory findings in existing literature. The discrepant findings in research on body image may be due to inconsistencies across studies regarding which body image dimension is assessed. Discrepancies may also be due to a failure to control for the pretest sensitization effects of body image assessment. This research addresses these methodological problems and elaborates on existing literature. A better understanding of the ways in which thin-ideal media influences the different dimensions of body image will guide and inform the development of interventions designed to prevent body image problems and eating disorder tendencies.
The Effects of a Structured Pedometer Exercise Program on Blood Pressure and BMI of Children Aged 9-12 Years
Stephanie A. Recko
The purpose of this study is to determine the effect of a structured pedometer walking program on blood pressure and Body Mass Index (BMI) of children. The study utilizes a review of literature and case study research. The aim of the study is to discover whether the use of pedometers, small devices that count the number of daily steps, and daily step goals are effective in encouraging children and youth to become more active and improving their health. The hypothesis is that the program will help motivate children and youth to become more active and improve their blood pressures and BMI's. The study found no statistical significant improvements in either blood pressure or BMI, but all subjects did improve their daily step count (2628.66 steps/day).
Christopher J. Stucke
The use of silver nanoparticles in commercially made products is rapidly increasing, and there is no regulation on the disposal of these nanoparticles. As human exposure to silver nanoparticles rises, this study determines the effects of this exposure on stem cell factor gene expression and stem cell fate. This was accomplished by introducing varying concentrations of silver nanoparticles into mouse embryonic stem cells for varying amounts of time. Western blot and immunoprecipitation techniques were run on these cells to determine how the responses of stem cell factors Oct4, Nanog, P53, SirT1, and Rb differ from their normal function within the cell. In addition, this study also determines whether programmed cell death is occurring in response to the silver nanoparticle treatment. The results of the research provided necessary scientific data to improve or eliminate potential toxicity of nanoparticles, and information for relevant authority when approving products for consumer uses.
Paul T. Enlow
The transition to college is a new and exciting time in a studentâs life. However, it may also become increasingly stressful due to rapid changes, new experiences, and added responsibilities. Friendship has been found to influence how well a student adjusts to college life, but the influences of individual aspects of friendship are not well understood. This study examined the effects of friendship on college adjustment as indicated by overall satisfaction and academic achievement. Results showed that experiencing more social support and acceptance was associated with better academic adjustment. In addition, it was found that overall adjustment is associated with factors such as amount of acceptance, academic performance in school, the degree to which one is connected to home, and how much social support is provided by friends.
Halle S. Trapp
What is it that makes something beautiful? Although the universality of this experience is obvious, most people do not realize the complexities and implications of beauty. Because beauty is not part of contemporary critical talk, and is actually denounced, Wendy Steiner attempts to bring the concept back as a producer of an empathetic relationship in Venus in Exile. She exemplifies how the recognition of beauty of women in art has become transformed into something perverse, ultimately resulting in the view of women as possessions and sex objects. The underlying catalyst for this fetishized image of women rests in Sigmund Freudâs attribution to the basis of religion: the Oceanic Feeling. In my thesis, I will utilize Charles Baudelaire's "Beauty" to demonstrate that this limitless and unbounded sensation destroys the experience and power of beauty to fabricate empathy.
The Feasibility and Effect of a Kickboxing Training Program on the Balance, Gait, and Overall Quality of Life of Persons with Multiple Sclerosis: A Case Series
Michele L. Baeder
Physical activity may be utilized to reduce and prevent the secondary effects of multiple sclerosis. Kickboxing training is a non-traditional high intensity exercise which focuses on increasing balance, strength, and mobility. The objective of the case series is to examine the feasibility and effect of a 5-week kickboxing training program on the balance and gait of three individuals with MS. Five individuals with multiple sclerosis participated in the 5-week kickboxing study. Three participants completed all phases of testing and training. The program consisted of three training sessions per week, resulting in 15 total sessions. Outcome measures were tested on three separate occasions; baseline, pre-training, and post-training. Outcome measures included the Mini BESTest, Berg Balance Scale (BBS), Dynamic Gait Index (DGI), Timed Up and Go (TUG), walking speed, Activities Specific Balance Confidence Scale (ABC), and MS Quality of Life Survey (MSQOL). The only consistent improvement found was in balance confidence, as measured by the ABC scale. There was no improvement found in the balance measures, gait speed and health related quality of life. A kickboxing training program is feasible and safe for persons with multiple sclerosis. Further research may be needed with an increase in the number of participants and in the duration of the program may produce greater improvement of the outcome measures.
Katherine E. Seager
The American Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB) and the International Accounting Standards Board (IASB) are working together to converge their accounting standards. The Boards have jointly undertaken the Financial Statement Presentation Project to standardize the presentation of financial statements, using constituent feedback to guide their efforts. This thesis analyzes how the Boards use the feedback from different parties to shape their standard setting in the area of Other Comprehensive Income. Comment letters were received by the Boards in response to the publication of proposed changes to standards. The thesis looks at these comment letters and analyzes the apparent impact of responses received on the final accepted amendments to the rules.
The impact of self-esteem level on the interpretation of ambiguous stimuli after a rejection experience
Nicholette T. Smith
How do rejection experiences influence the interpretation of messages in people with high self-esteem versus people with low self-esteem? Previous research finds that ambiguous or neutral information will be encoded according to one's mood, a phenomenon referred to as the mood congruent encoding hypothesis (Schwarz & Clore, 2006). The present study examines whether self-esteem buffers against the negative effects that a negative mood stemming from a rejection experience has on the interpretation of emotionally neutral, written information. It is hypothesized that people with low self-esteem who have experienced a rejection experience will interpret a neutral message and the sender more negatively, and as more threatening than individuals with high self-esteem. This hypothesis will be tested in two steps. At Time 1, participants will complete baseline measures of the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (Rosenberg, 1965), the Rejection Sensitivity Questionnaire (Downey & Feldman, 1996), and the Narcissistic Personality Inventory (Raskin & Terry, 1988) during the psychology department's mass testing session. At Time 2, participants will come to the lab and be randomly assigned to write about one of three things: a past experience of rejection (high rejection condition), acceptance (low rejection condition), or an event unrelated to rejection or acceptance (control condition). Participants will then read an emotionally positive, negative, and neutral piece of text, ostensibly written by another person, and evaluate whether they perceive the written text to be emotionally positive or negative, as well as describe their perceptions of the writer. Data will be analyzed to see whether there is a significant difference in interpretation of the neutral stimulus after undergoing a rejection experience, based on one's self-esteem level. Identifying connections between self-esteem and rejection sensitivity is important in determining under which circumstances individuals carry rejection experiences into other aspects of life to predict and explain interpersonal interactions.
Katherine A. Earl
Self-forgiveness has been defined as âa set of motivational changes whereby one becomes decreasingly motivated to retaliate against the self, and increasingly motivated to act benevolently toward the selfâ (Fincham & Hall, 2005, 622). Studies by Heinze & Snyder (2001) as well as Mauger et al. (1992) suggest that essential to the relationship between psychological well-being and forgiveness is the concept of forgiveness of self. Self-forgiveness has been linked to rumination, a maladaptive coping response to stressful occasions in which one focuses on his or her distress and on possible reasons for as well as the ramifications of the distress (Thompson, Snyder, Hoffman, Rasmussen, Billings, Heinze, Shorey, Roberts, 2005; Nolen-Hoeksema, 1991). Also related to the study of self-forgiveness is the study of perfectionism or âa desire to be perfect, a fear of imperfection, and an emotional conviction that perfection might be the route to personal acceptabilityâ (Greenspon, 2008, p. 280). According to Besser, Flett, and Hewitt (2004), perfectionism is correlated with the ruminative response style classified by Nolen-Hoeksema (1991). Though there is a wealth of research regarding the associations between forgiveness and rumination as well as perfectionism and rumination, all three concepts of self-forgiveness, rumination, and perfectionism have never been studied in conjunction before. Given past research, I hypothesize that rumination mediates the relationship between perfectionism and self-forgiveness. More specifically, I predict that increased levels of perfectionism will be associated with increased levels of rumination, which, in turn, will result in decreased levels of self-forgiveness.
Margaret B. Gillespie
Research on male behavior has historically focused on negative aspects, such as consumption of excessive alcohol, engaging in demeaning actions against women and participating in violent behavior (Harper & Harris, 2010). The attitudes and perceptions of being a man are influenced by numerous factors, including family, friends, religion, and environment (Harris & Harper, 2008). This research was designed to identify and target the positive attitudes of sophomore men at the University of Dayton; to attempt to identify where the attitudes came from and the barriers men face to remain true to their value bases. While research on the existence and development of pro-social behaviors (i.e., behaviors intended to benefit others) has been an active field of study for the last several decades, student affairs practitioners at the higher education level have traditionally tried to correct anti-social behavior by focusing on the negative â frequency of sexual assaults by men, unhealthy drinking habits, and other counterproductive behaviors (Eisenberg & Fabes, 1998; Berkowitz, 2010). Research also shows, however, that most men report having pro-social attitudes but are inhibited from expressing them because of the incorrect perception that other men have do not have pro-social attitudes. This misperception also serves as a justification to other men to allow anti-social behavior (Berkowitz, 2010). In an attempt to be pro-active about destructive behavior, this research gave men the opportunity to reveal the truth about their authentic attitudes towards each other and about how men act today. This approach created an environment free from misperceptions and reduced a false and destructive sense of gender dichotomies. The results of this research provided insights for college administrators to use as they design and implement male-centric programming and initiatives designed to help college men remain true to themselves.
Arianna T. Arnett, Adam Barnas, Megan K. Dailey, Jamie L. Flannery, Kristen A. Kemp, Peter M. Sismour
Previous research has shown that overconfidence, the belief that ability to perform a task is greater than actual ability, is associated with risky behavior (Campbell, Goodie, & Foster, 2004). The present research evaluated the relationship between overconfidence, risky behavior, and narcissism (confidence and feelings of self-sufficiency, often in the extreme). Male and female undergraduate participants were given a series of questionnaires and participated in several tasks to assess overconfidence, narcissism, risky behavior and the need for achievement. Participants were assigned to either an experimental condition, where participants bet on their ability to answer a series of general knowledge questions, or a control condition, where participants rated their confidence in their ability to answer the same series of general knowledge questions. To examine whether feedback had an effect on confidence, participants either received or did not receive feedback after answering each general knowledge question. We hypothesized that those who merely rated their confidence would show less signs of overconfidence than those who bet on the accuracy of their performance. Results have shown that the participants that were placed in the betting condition were notably more overconfident than those who were only asked to rate their confidence. We also predicted that narcissism would correlate with risky behavior in participants. Those who scored higher on a narcissism scale were also more likely to engage in risky behavior.
Daniel E. Forero
Thermal management of USAF system & platforms requires thermal energy storage materials (TES) that can rapidly store large transient pulses of heat. Composites of salt hydrates and graphitic foam offer high thermal storage capabilities and high thermal conductivities. However, thermal transport across graphite-hydrous salt interfaces may limit the heat transfer through such a composite. Here, laser flash analysis was used to measure thermal diffusivity across graphite-water-graphite stacks and effective diffusivity of water layer and interface was determined. The effect of surfactant-water mixtures and two different surface treatments were analyzed. For all cases, including pure water interfacial layers, the measured effective diffusivity was lower than the accepted literature value for pure water (by 20% in the case of pure water). In the case of the surfactant-graphite mixtures, effective diffusivity is a function of the surfactant concentration. These differences suggest the importance of interfaces within composites.