Antibiotics in the Environment: Isolating Antibiotics for Medical Purposes
David Robert Bowler
Bacteria isolated from the soil can be indicators of the health of an environment and its residents. Unfortunately, due to the overuse and misuse of antibiotics both in environmental and clinical settings, many strains of pathogenic bacteria have become resistant to common antibiotics making the treatment of infections much more challenging. The urgent need for new strategies at antimicrobial management has led our study to evaluate antimicrobial compounds extracted from soil bacteria. Isolating these antibiotics gives us a pure colony These antibiotics that we can then use for medicinal purposes as well as creating new antibiotics for bacterial diseases. This study started by collecting a soil sample from the side of a student house near the downspout of the gutter. Samples were diluted in water and purified using the streak plate technique. Colonies were tested through a series of biochemical tests such as gram staining and were genetically sequenced to determine the exact identification of the bacteria. Antibiotics contribute to the medical field and the area of prescription drugs and medication used before and after treatments. A new discovery of antibiotics could help eliminate current and future bacterial infections.
A Numerical Study of Radiative Fin Performance with an Emphasis on Geometry and Spacecraft Applications
Natalie Starr Douglass
Radiative fin technology is used in a wide variety of applications: automotive, electronics, and space. However, radiative fin is generally only analyzed along the thickness profile. This work analyzes radiative fin planar geometry and thickness profile in tandem. From there, the findings are used to investigate a novel dynamic spacecraft radiator system. Fins are analyzed to optimize for a variety of performance criteria, including maximum heat transfer, tip temperature, or fin efficiency. For analysis of both static and dynamic fins, a two-dimensional mathematical heat transfer model is developed. It is found that a triangular thickness profile is most critical for heat rate maximization. A fin with a triangular thickness profile increases heat rate by 38.8% when compared to a fin with identical planar geometry and volume, but with a uniform thickness profile. Planar shape is also found to influence fin performance. A fin with a rectangular planar geometry has a 6.8% increase in heat transfer as compared to a fin with a triangular planar geometry and identical thickness profile and volume. Additionally, it is also found that triangular thickness profiles produce the maximally efficient fins. Following these results, a novel design for a dynamic spacecraft radiator with annular geometry and varied thickness is presented. It is found that turndown ratios of 3.33 are capable with the novel system. Furthermore, it was found that fins with tapered thickness profile have the highest efficiency and turndown ratio. Finally, it is shown that turndown ratio and fin efficiency decrease as operating temperature increase.
A Pandemic Project: The Design, Construction, and Study of the Pipe Organ
Nicholas Christopher Koch
My lifelong fascination with mechanical devices and music led me to design and construct a pipe organ in my home during the pandemic. This ongoing, multidisciplinary, independent, design project shows the convergence of my internship experiences and studies in Mechanical Engineering, Physics, Music, Visual Arts, History, and many other trades. My work was influenced by my study and measurement of existing pipe organs throughout the state of Ohio. The goal of responsible consumption and production has been maintained throughout the project by reusing and refurbishing parts from other pipe organs originally installed around the country. Some of the parts reused in this new installation are over 112 years old. In addition to highlighting the stages of the design and construction process of my instrument, I will also discuss my research in the acoustics of organ pipes. This project illustrates the result of years of independent work and my experience gained through my internships at UDRI and Leek Pipe Organ Company in Berea, Ohio.
Approximate Motion Synthesis by Using the Poles of Planar Displacements
The primary objective of this research work is to reformulate and solve a basic machine design problem called approximate motion synthesis. The need for this reformulation is that prior techniques rely on numerical methods and the need for significant user input. The pole method being proposed herein is a more straightforward approach that is simpler to implement and requires fewer inputs to find a solution. Our research focuses on approximate motion synthesis for the simplest of linkages, a planar four-bar. The reason for this is that a four-bar can produce an approximation solution to a manufacturing or assembly problem, and then modest variation in its components can be added to create an exact solution to the problem. The variation in its components is essentially the mingling of the four-bar with robotic components, which generates a new class of low DOF machines called metamachines. Hence, the four-bar is the approximate solution, and the metamachine is the mixture of the four-bar with the robotic components having the capacity to produce an exact solution.
A presentation of the Senior Visual Arts Capstone Projects
Mary Connor, Mariella Leon-Witt
Visual Arts majors in the Department of Art and Design will present research and analysis of their individual journey culminating in creative self-directed artistic projects. Each student project is unique and reflects their selected vocations in the visual arts determined by a review of professional practices, standards and activities across related disciplines.
A Random Point on the Surface of the Earth
Fawaz M. S. S Almutairi, Nayef Y. TH. TH Y. Almutairi, Mohammad A. M. S. N. M. Alshamaa
In this project proposal, the technique to get a random point on the surface of the Earth was discussed. Earth is considered as a spherical object, so spherical coordinates system is used. At first, for simplicity, the sphere of radius 1 is considered. After that, a random point on the sphere is selected and finally the value from spherical coordinates system is converted into Cartesian coordinates system.
Are Bone Fractures Related to Vitamin and Mineral Deficiencies in College Basketball Athletes at the University of Dayton?
Conor M. Coyne, Devin Anderson Fedele, Lindsey Michelle Paniszczyn
The purpose of this study is to gain a broader knowledge and understanding of the relationship between vitamin supplementation and bone fractures among college student-athletes. Both men and women athletes from the Division I and club basketball teams at the University of Dayton will be asked to participate in this case-control study. The goal is to collect at least 60 survey responses. Athletes will be sent a Google form survey in which they will answer both closed-ended and open-ended questions. These questions will address potential vitamin supplementation, knowledge and beliefs surrounding supplementation, and the prevalence of bone fractures among athletes. Participants will also be asked information such as year in school, sex, ethnicity, if they've previously had a fracture, currently have a fracture, what supplements they currently use, and ingredients found within those supplements. The participation will take approximately five to ten minutes. In alignment with research ethical standards, athletes will be asked to read and electronically agree to take the survey and provide their consent. They will be made aware that all answers are anonymous and no personal information will be shared outside of the conductors of this research study. Data collection and results are forthcoming.
Are Exercise Habits Related to Mental Health in College Students?
Lauren M. Banke, Anna Terese Coghlan, Jayne Elise Lawson, Jessica Ann Moore, Brianna Marie Tersigni
Mental health is an umbrella term that refers to mental, cognitive, and psychological factors. Physical activity is a way to heal and improve a person’s health both mentally and physically. The purpose of this study is to measure the correlation between exercise habits and mental health in undergraduate college students attending the University of Dayton. It is essential to find if there is a positive relationship between the two that can improve the overall well-being of college students. The participants will be undergraduate college students from the University of Dayton, 18-22 years old. They completed a 20 question survey that included their demographics, current exercise habits, and their mental health status. The exercise questions include, frequency, time, and type of exercise, as well if they exercise in groups or individually. The survey will ask the participants if they ever feel stressed, anxious, overwhelmed, depressed, have low self esteem, body dysmorphia, never experience any of these feelings, or may experience other feelings. There will be questions asked using a scale from 1 being the lowest/worst to 5 being the highest/best about how exercise affects their mental health. Data collection will occur between March 28th and April 4th, therefore the results will be forthcoming.
Aretha Franklin’s Power in Music
Colton Miller Levey
This poster presentation examines the impact of Aretha Franklin on Black feminism. Through her voice, she displays her call for equality for all women. This presentation will dive deep into how her song “Respect” has become a “feminist anthem” and the significant effect it had on the women during the late 60s throughout the civil and women’s rights movement. This poster presentation, through a close read of the song "Respect" will juxtapose the impact of specific lyrics to larger contexts of the feminist movement, particularly second wave feminism and the call for inclusion of Black women in the movement
A Review: EMS Utilization for Alcohol-Related Calls at the University of Dayton
Maddison Nicole Henry, Zachary Ryan Rudich
In the U.S., attending college brings with itself a new culture, some of which revolves around binge drinking, which the Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) defines as “consuming 5 or more drinks on an occasion for men or 4 or more drinks on an occasion for women” (CDC, 2022). A 2019 national survey found that 53% of college students drank alcohol in the past month, with 33% reporting binge drinking (Samsa, 2021). The University of Dayton (UD) is no exception. In 2019, Barstool Sports ranked the Top 25 Party Schools, with UD coming in 12th place (Mac, 2019). In 2013, UD was ranked number fourteen in the country for the number of alcohol-related arrests, averaging 926 offenses per year (Ranch at Dove Tree, 2021). With both of our experiences working as college Emergency Medical Technicians (EMTs), our topic of EMS utilization for alcohol-related calls touched areas we see professionally and socially on campus. Studies have shown “alcohol intoxication contributes to 17 to 44% of all university-based ambulance trips” (Ranch at Dove Tree, 2021). According to data collected from UD EMS, through the months of August 2020 to May 2021, the months of February and March had the highest rate of alcohol-related emergency calls. The data collected for our project occurred when COVID protocols were in place on UD’s campus. The data may not necessarily indicate what would occur in a normal year, since UD was not at maximal occupancy due to students studying remotely, limited party and bar capacity, and other factors. UD has various resources available for students, which we will be highlighting. This project aims to highlight incidences of alcohol-related emergencies by month on the UD campus and emphasize available resources UD offers to prevent risky drinking behaviors and alcohol abuse.
A Root Mean Square Error Forecasting Model for Inflation: An Empirical Analysis, 2009-2021
Sydnee C. Haymore, John V. Ruma, Kristen N. Timko
The purpose of this study is to determine if Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) forecasting models for different inflation indexes (e.g. Personal Consumption Expenditure Price Index (PCEPI) are statistically reliable and efficient for one and two years out of sample. Our benchmark for success is a 12 month average forecast error of 2.5% or less. We use time trend regressions to develop our RMSE inflation forecasting models. Our trend regression time periods are 2009-2017 and 2009-2018. 2019, 2020, and 2021 are the out-of-sample forecasting years.
Art Education Research: At the Intersections of Art and Teaching
Katherine Victoria Evans, Jennifer Roesch
Our research aims to address students who require additional support within the art classroom to provide every student with a quality education. This specific research looks into two groups of students; students who receive support through the implementation of IEP and 504 plans, and students who require extra support due to extreme poverty and homelessness. First, this research will explore the techniques, pedagogical tools, and experiences art educators use in an art class setting to best support the growth and learning of students who are placed on an individualized education plan/504 plan. It will examine how these methods differ from those used with neurotypical students in an art classroom. Additionally, this research will look into the links between Social Emotional Learning and art education, and how it can be used as a tool to foster resilience in the lives of students experiencing homelessness. This research includes both the methods of a review of the current literature out there on the subject and an analysis of narratives collected from art educators currently working in the field as an attempt to bridge gaps that exist in said research. By participating in research regarding these particular students and their support, we are working toward the goal of ensuring that all students, no matter their experiences or specific needs, will receive a quality education
Artists Overcoming Systemic Obstacles
Mark Neil Roble
I aim to illustrate the injustice of the criminal justice system and how these individuals have still overcome these to succeed in the performing and visual arts. Specifically, how when prison inmates finish their sentences and are released back into society, how hard it is for them to be successful and gain their footing. The documentary When they See Us opened my eyes to this fact as most people think once inmates are released that “they can just get back to their normal lives.” The reality is that there are countless roadblocks put in their way and I will highlight the successes and triumphs these individuals have made regardless of the many hardships they face. I will show those who became artists despite obstacles and others who just found success in other ways in spite of the corrupt and unjust “justice system.” Sources will include Shakespeare behind bars, the School to Prison Pipeline work by Anna Deavere Smith, and When They See Us.
Art Therapy and Sustainability
Natalie E. Davis
My presentation will include my study of bridging the gap between art and psychology and how they relate to one another. Art therapy is a career that I am really interested in along with counseling in General. I based my UD Fellowship over the summer around this topic as well and hope to talk about some of the work that came from that in my presentation. The other major topic I want to focus on is sustainability, specifically with the equipment we use here at UD in the studios. I will be talking about the different glazes that are used, the kiln firing process, and other chemicals and how they effect our environment.
A Singer-Songwriter: How I Wrote My First Album
Caitlyn R. Hood
In this presentation, listeners will see how I created the album using an online system known as Bandlab, and understand my personal compositional style and may even be inspired to create their own music. I will discuss how I used the program, why I wrote the album, how I came up with new ideas, and perform a song off of my album as well.
Assessing and Improving the Biocompatibility and Usability of Composite Additively Manufactured Organ-On-Chip Devices
Fluidic organ-on-chip (OOC) devices are powerful tools in biomedical research, allowing for the set-up, control, and monitoring of complex biological scenarios that better mimic in vivo conditions. Currently, the adoption of OOC devices for biological research is limited due to low yields and high-cost stemming from the engineering expertise and manual skill required to design and fabricate them. Additive manufacturing techniques making use of digital modularity can reduce the expertise and skill required while increasing functionality with multi-material components. We report on our work evaluating the biocompatibility of 3D-printed cell culture devices with various materials and surface modifications. OOC devices were fabricated from Cyclic Olefin Co-polymer (COC) using fused filament fabrication. Additional components were fabricated from silicone and chitosan with extrude and cure printing and electrospinning to provide cell-culture substrates that better mimic native tissues. To further enhance the material biocompatibility and promote cell adhesion, we treated surfaces with corona plasma and polydopamine surface coating.To evaluate the biocompatibility of the materials and surface modifications used in our composite devices, we employ and optimize live/dead viability assay procedures using a combination of highly sensitive fluorescent dyes (Calcein Blue AM and 7-AAD) in 3D-printed COC cell culture devices in vitro. These experiments and the resulting protocols provide a comprehensive method to assess novel materials and cell culture device configurations. The work also provided research-level feedback on the usability of the devices which led to iterative redesign which will be reported. Both outcomes set the foundation for the future construction of affordable, biocompatible, and functional organ-on-chip (OOC) systems manufactured using COC. The successful fabrication of biocompatible 3D-printed cell culture devices using COC and additional materials presented by this project may overcome the manufacturing limitations of OOC using bioengineering strategies, which enables for future mass-production of various OOC systems.
Assessing flight task performance of general aviation pilots under varied VR conditions
Nathan A. Brelage
An understanding of how pilots complete their flight tasks is an essential element of preventing aviation incidents. Disorientation or a loss of control of the aircraft are some of the direct causes of such events. This study seeks to assess the impact of environmental factors on the ability of general aviation pilots to complete flight tasks.Certified pilots (n = 8) with experience flying a Cessna 172 or similar aircraft participated. They were tasked with flying a virtual model of a Cessna 172 Skyhawk. This was accomplished using X-Plane 11 flight simulation software, Honeycomb Alpha flight controls, and a Saitek throttle quadrant. The software was integrated with an HTC Vive Pro virtual reality headset. Within X-Plane 11, three environmental conditions were created: Clear, Partial Clouds, and Full Clouds. All weather conditions other than cloud cover were the same across the environments with no wind present. No clouds are present in the Clear condition. Roughly 50% of the ground is obscured by clouds in the Partial Clouds condition. The ground is completely obscured by clouds in the Full Clouds condition. In each environment, the pilots were tasked with performing a series of 500 ft ascents, 500 ft descents, 90° turns to the right, and 90° turns to the left. These tasks were completed above the cloud layer.The pilots were assessed based on their altitude error, heading error, heading rate of change, and the amount of motor control effort that was required to complete the task. The duration of the task was also considered when evaluating the impact of the environment. The findings of this study may help to indicate where pilots need additional training or tools to aid them in safely controlling their aircraft.
Assessing Mental Health Issues in Indigenous Communities (Sioux)
Vanessa Noelle Ocampo Bautista, Madeline Sierra Hendrix
The lack of acknowledgement by the American Psychological Association of mental health problems in Indigenous communities and its failure to identify culture-specific disorders, results in inadequate training of mental health professionals serving in these communities. The 25 conditions that the physicians failed to address for over 100 years which include, “Pibloktoq (arctic hysteria), chidnoh (a form of ghost sickness), windigo (melancholia and delusions), schwas (spirit intrusion), and iich’aa (taboo breaking)” (Grandbois 1008). Leaving these as unrecognized disorders results in many indigenous people turning to traditional ways of healing and feeling that most non-indigenous people should not use spiritual or healing methods. They believe modern psychology has failed them and it can be perceived to be a form of social control, as history has suggested. One way to solve these ongoing issues is by assigning the clinician to a Native mentor or having them live with and meet the community members. In an article from the National Institute of Mental Health, researchers suggest that “‘mainstream clinicians’ ought to consult with indigenous practitioners about the expressions of mental disorders among indigenous people. Such recommendations should become a required action and a practice guideline for all practitioners who are not culturally competent to provide quality care to AIAN people'' (Lewis). Psychologists need indigenous mentors and integration in the community to have a better understanding of the culture. Through the specific language that the therapist uses, adequate cultural training, knowledge of tribal law, government support, and respect for Indigenous therapy, treatment between the patient and therapist can be improved. This poster explores the mental health issues and solutions specific to the Siouxland community.
Assessing the Association Between Religion, Relationship Status, Sexual Activity, and Self Worth Among College Students
Lily Marisa Sweeterman
The course of romantic relationships has changed greatly over the past century especially among young people. This research explores the relationship between the importance of religion and relationship status and sexual activity on self worth in a sample of over 70,000 college students aged 18-25 in the United States. Data for this research come from the Healthy Minds Study, an online survey of college students conducted from 2018-2019 by the University of Michigan. Using chi-square tests, I first examine the relationship between religion and number of sexual partners, relationship status, and agreement with two statements about self worth: "I am a good person and live a good life" and "people respect me." I hypothesized that students with higher levels of religiosity would report lower levels of self worth if they had a greater number of sexual partners, but higher levels of self worth if they reported being in a relationship.
Assessing the Current Pharmaceutical Patent System in the United States
Ivy Ayitey, Augustine James Boehnlein
In the last couple of decades, one of the major crises that continues to plague healthcare is the rising costs of medications (Rajkumar, 2020). While it could be argued that pharmaceutical companies are at fault for these high costs, the standards of the current patent system that these companies follow allow such price gouging to continue (Rajkumar, 2020). The current patent system is meant to spur innovation while still allowing competition by securing short-term monopolies for new medications (Feldman, 2018). However, pharmaceutical companies are finding loopholes in the current system to extend their monopolies on current drugs to increase future revenue (Feldman, 2018). Such practices are called “evergreening” and explain why “78% of the drugs associated with new patents in the FDA’s records were not new drugs coming on the market, but existing drugs” (Feldman, 2018). Both Feldman (2018) and Gøtzsche (2018) argue that these practices are hurting innovation and the future of healthcare, which is why alternative models such as the not-for-profit model, increased transparency, Ruthless Simplification, and One-and-Done policies have been offered. The purpose of this poster is to outline the current patent system in place, detail the system’s problems, and describe proposed solutions.
Assessing the Effects of Body Worn Cameras on Police and Citizen Interactions
Callaghan J. Flood, Lily R. Holtane
This study aims to use quantitative data analysis expanded by a qualitative interview to explore the effects of BWCs on police-citizen interactions by looking at citizen complaints against officers in various police departments across the United States. The goal is to provide an overarching view of the effects of BWCs across the whole United States. Specifically, this study is looking to see if BWCs can improve the interactions between police and citizens as a part of re-legitimizing police in the eyes of the public.
Assessing the Impact of COVID-19 and Childhood Immunization Rates in the United States
Laura L. Bender, Hannah Marie Derespiris
Vaccines are an important part of the health and well-being of children. The CDC notes that vaccines are a safe and effective way to prevent infectious diseases and strengthen their immune systems (2019). HPV, measles, and polio are among some of the few potentially life threatening diseases that vaccines can prevent (CDC, 2019). Staying up to date on vaccinations is important for people of all ages, but especially for children and infants since their immune systems are not fully developed (CDC, 2019). Through childhood immunizations, the immune system produces antibodies to help recognize and protect against fatal diseases (CDC, 2019). In the US, during the pandemic, there was a decrease in the number of children getting their regular vaccines. According to a study done in the United States, “Among children aged <24 months and children aged>2–6 years, DTaP doses administered declined an overall median of 15.7% and 60.3%, respectively, across all jurisdictions compared with the same period during 2018 and 2019” (Patel et al., 2021). Further research needs to be done regarding the exact reasons for the decrease in vaccinations during the pandemic, but regardless, there are potentially severe health ramifications for children being unvaccinated. The purpose of this poster is to examine changes in childhood vaccination rates since the pandemic began, its implications for the health of children, and to discuss future initiatives of vaccine programming.
Assessing the Impact of COVID-19 on Psychiatric Calls for UD EMS
Danielle Carmela Brown, Avery Lyn Lewis
Mental health has become increasingly discussed and studied in recent decades. The COVID-19 pandemic led to unprecedented times and numerous restraints for society as a whole, but specifically, for the education system and its students. From the pandemic, isolation periods, uncertainty in class format and structure, and fear of the future all contribute to mental stressors during this time. In a study conducted at Texas A&M University, 71% of college students indicated an increase of stress and anxiety due to the COVID-19 pandemic (Son et al., 2020). Additionally, nearly 20% of college students surveyed during the pandemic experienced suicidal thoughts or ideations (Wang et al., 2020). As students and collegiate EMS providers at the University of Dayton, we are interested in studying the impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic on mental health crises which can be reflected by the amount of psychiatric calls for UD EMS. Specifically, the data, provided by UD EMS Assistant Chief of Operations, was drawn from 2018 through 2022 and compares the total number of EMS calls to the number of psychiatric calls throughout that period. During the 2020-2021 school year in the pandemic, UD EMS responded to a total of 7 psychiatric emergencies out of 110 total calls (6.36%). In January 2022 alone, UD EMS responded to 5 psychiatric emergencies out of 34 total calls (14.7%), which is the highest number ever recorded in a single month. These totals do not reflect the students with mental health crises that receive assistance from the University of Dayton Police Department without the intervention of UD EMS. The purpose of this poster is to recognize how COVID-19 has increased mental health issues on the University of Dayton’s campus and to provide a comprehensive guide of mental health resources available to students.https://www.jmir.org/2020/9/e21279/ https://www.jmir.org/2020/9/e22817/
Assessing the link between DEFB1 gene mutation and the predisposition to dental caries
Max W. Hartwig, Alexander B. Kurdziel
Caries, more commonly known as cavities, occur in the oral cavity when bacteria attack the tooths’ enamel causing tooth decay (National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research, 2019). According to Dye (2015), caries are extremely common with 91% of adults 20 to 64 having had dental caries in their permanent teeth. While there are over 700 different species of bacteria within the oral cavity, there are important immune barriers that fend off these bacteria (National Institute of Health, 2019). Beta defensin 1, one of these immune barriers, is a protein that is encoded by the DEFB1 gene (NCBI, 2022). This protein is commonly found on the enamel of teeth and serves as one of the first lines of defense against invading germs (University of Pittsburgh Schools of the Health Sciences, 2010). A mutation or polymorphism of this gene can be a genetic cause for an increased amount of caries in an individual (Ozturk, 2010). According to Conroy (1993), as much as 40-65% of the risk for dental caries can be due to genetic factors. In a more recent study, the presence of the variant allele of the DEFB1 marker rs11362 (G-20A) was associated with a five-fold increase in decayed, missing teeth due to caries (Ozturk, 2010). The purpose of this poster is to discuss research on the link between the predisposition to caries and the mutation of the DEFB1 gene. Afterwards, we will discuss literature that strategizes how to prevent dental caries in people with the predisposition.
Assessment of Aggressive Behavior in a Transgenic Mouse Model
Kiara Eileen Bahamonde, Ben Klocke
The Tube Dominance Test has been widely used to assess social dominance, aggression, and social hierarchy in mice. The purpose of our study was to determine if the Tube Dominance Test can be used to identify aggression and social dominance in transgenic mice that lack a specific calcium regulatory protein. To test this hypothesis wild type and knockout mice of both sexes were habituated with the clear tube and handled for three days. For five days, the mice were trained to pass through the tube. For testing, two mice meet in the middle of the clear tube. Due to limited space within the tube, only one mouse can pass at a time; therefore, one mouse must submit to the other. Preliminary analyses are currently being conducted using this behavioral assay to assess aggression levels in this mouse strain.
The Brother Joseph W. Stander Symposium recognizes and celebrates academic excellence in undergraduate and graduate education. This annual event provides an opportunity for students from all disciplines to showcase their intellectual and artistic accomplishments and embody the University's mission to be a "community of learners." This collection contains a sampling of the more than 200 projects presented each year during the symposium.
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