The Brother Joseph W. Stander Symposium recognizes and celebrates academic excellence in undergraduate and graduate education. This annual event provides an opportunity for students from all disciplines to showcase their intellectual and artistic accomplishments. The Stander Symposium represents the Marianist tradition of education through community and is the principal campus-wide event in which faculty and students actualize our mission to be a "community of learners."
Emotions within Art
As an artist, I am someone who works off of my emotions. If I am upset, my sadness is put into the artwork. If I am angry, my strokes become harder. If I am happy, there is a sense of balance. I work off of the way I am feeling because it puts a piece of who I am at the time into my work. My art becomes a timeline of my emotions and
Empirical Research Presentations in Economics
Daniel Montgomery, Jhonson Francis, Nathaniel Espelin, Gabrielle Rullo, Robert Filshie, Dale Hirschfield, John Dorn, Dane Kalman, Dennis Hogan, Michael Neel, Andrew Kozak, Anna Luepke, Ryan Flannery, Michael Denning, Catherine Hegg, Anna Unger, Justin Rose, Margaret Ruhlmann, David Bolan, John Milling, Griffin Laake, George Fanelli, Brendan Miller, Marcus Dunlap, William Avery, Luke Brower, Ryan Maloney, George DeBates, Nicholas Smrt, Brandon Cheng
Four years of coursework culminate in a written and oral presentation of an empirical research project during the senior capstone course. Students apply economic theory and econometric techniques to analyze data in order to answer an original research question.
Empowering or Oppressive? The Impact of Religious Gender Roles on Worldview
Jamie Burenga, Hannah Schultz, Brianna Comstock, Samantha Thomas
This project is a literature review focusing on women's roles in religious groups and how traditional gender roles impact how the world views women and how women view themselves. We found that gender roles in religious groups, modesty culture, religious leadership, and stereotypes often negatively impact women’s body image, mental health, and the gender power balance. Additionally, religious teachings of female submission have been linked to domestic violence ideology.
Establishing Drosophila Intestinal Tumor Models to Study Signaling interactions that regulate tumor growth
Ayesha Sheikh, Michael Gruhot, Anthony Latronica, Sydney Anderson, Arushi Rai; other authors: Amit Singh, Madhuri Kango-Singh
In 2023, the American Cancer Society estimated 106,970 new cases of colon cancer and about 50000 new cases of rectal cancer in the USA. Colorectal Cancer (CRC) is the second most lethal cancer. Studies in patients revealed the genetic lesions associated with CRC. These include activation of oncogenic Ras, loss of function of APC, and dominant negative p53 mutations. Genetic mutations in these three genes- RAS, APC and p53 have a high incidence rate in human CRC. We have developed a Drosophila melanogaster CRC model by integrating all three mutations in a single fly line. To understand the expression of each mutated gene on tumorigenesis, ‘one-’, ‘two-’, and ‘three-hit’ models were also made. Using these models we plan to establish how combinations of genetic alterations promote intestinal tumor growth. We will investigate the interactions between the molecular pathways involved by assessing the effects on the expression of pathway-specific target genes in the tumors and characterizing tumor progression in our CRC models.To generate CRC tumors in the Drosophila intestine, we misexpressed the genes under study using Esc-GAL4, which will drive the expression of tumor-promoting genes specifically in intestinal stem cells. We quantified the survival rates of mutant and control flies to determine the impact of these genetic alterations on survival. Second, by dissecting the gut of third-instar larvae we assessed the phenotypes of intestinal tumors. We have preliminary data from our immunohistochemistry studies that will be compared between all CRC models. Here, we present our progress on the development and assessment of CRC models using the power of Drosophila.
Evaluating Premenstrual Hedonic Eating Patterns in College-Aged Females
Women in college are more susceptible to weight gain, due to a myriad of factors. Specifically women in college, who experience a menstrual cycle, encounter hedonic eating patterns, or an urge for hyperpalatable foods. Hormones associated with the menstrual cycle, in the digestive system, and neurohormones are known to influence food-seeking behaviors. Both homeostatic mechanisms and the endocannabinoid system have a role in hunger and satiety. There is a known correlation between the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle with hedonic eating patterns. However, there is a lack of nutrition education interventions that seek to strategize ways to mitigate these cravings. Mindfulness is a known strategy to help cope with hedonic eating behaviors, but the association and application to a woman’s menstrual cycle is not well researched. This study seeks to affirm the correlation between women in the luteal phase of their menstrual cycle with higher frequency and intensity of food cravings, as well as the presence, or lack thereof, with mindful eating skills. This is a part of a larger study to be completed next year, which will take this study’s protocol and results to make necessary adjustments. This will then be followed with an educational intervention of mindfulness to help mitigate hedonic eating behavior, with the same structured post-survey to assess improvements in mindfulness surrounding the eating experience throughout one’s menstrual cycle.
Evaluation of Potential Risk Factors for Osgood-Schlatter’s Disease
Osgood Schlatter’s Disease (OSD) is a condition of inflammation of the patellar tendon and tibial tuberosity that can lead to pain and discomfort. It is most common in adolescents aged 8-15 years who are physically active or participate in sports. Adolescents participating in sports and going through puberty struggle to handle the load put on their lower body. The few studies that have determined OSD risk factors have performed retrospective studies that consist of subjects who have already been diagnosed with OSD. Some of the commonly accepted risk factors are overuse, performing movements such as jumping or cutting, and an improper balance of strength and flexibility of the hamstring and quadriceps muscles. The quadriceps and hamstring muscles work in tandem to flex and extend the knee, which places stress on the patellar tendon. This study aims to evaluate the stress that certain soccer related movements place on the patellar tendon of children between ages 7 and 12 years old and if flexibility and muscle strength impacts that stress. Investigating how patellar tendon load is affected by certain soccer related movements and the flexibility and strength of the quadriceps and hamstrings will help to determine risk factors. Determining certain risk factors will inform pre-adolescents and adolescents of specific physical activity related precautions.
Everything but the Kitchen Sink / Junk Drawer / Divergence / Connected Divergence
Timmy Reilly, Lauren Borek, Allison Amos, Kendal Weber, Megan Weeda, Claire Murphy
Fine Art students Senior Thesis Presentation.
Examination of Stimulated Brillouin Scattering in SMF28E Coring and Nufern 1060XP Fibers and Identification of the Brillouin Threshold and the Brillouin Frequency
Michael J. Mueller; other authors: David E. Zelmon, Said Elhamri, Imad Agha
High power lasers are being used for an increasing number of applications in medicine, industry and the military. Increasing demands for high power, small size, and light weight have made the use of high-power fiber lasers a very attractive alternative to traditional solid state, gas, and chemical lasers. However, when operating at high power levels, fiber lasers are subject to nonlinear effects such as stimulated Raman scattering, stimulated Brillouin scattering. Stimulated Brillouin Scattering (SBS) is a nonlinear optical effect in which light interacts with a propagated acoustic wave. The Brillouin thresholds and the Brillouin frequencies for the standard SMF28E and Nufern 1060XP fibers are identified.
Examining the Impact of Types of Mediums on Adults vs. Teens in Terms of Their Political Awareness
Nolan Watson, Alicia Donley
In today's digital age, the role of different types of mediums in shaping political awareness and engagement has become a subject of considerable interest and debate. With the expansion of various media platforms, including traditional news outlets, social media, and online forums, the ways in which individuals engage with and become aware of political information have undergone notable changes. However, scholars have long debated how different types of mediums affect different age groups, particularly when it comes to political awareness. This topic sparked our research interest as young adults are able to vote. Understanding how different types of media affect political awareness is critical in today's society, especially when individuals are bombarded with a variety of political messages from various sources. Previous research has shown that young people, in particular, are increasingly turning to social media and online forums for political information, while traditional media outlets such as television and newspapers remain popular among older adults. However, it is unclear how different types of mediums affect political awareness among different age groups. This study aims to fill this gap in the literature by exploring the impact of various media platforms on adults' and teens' political awareness. By identifying the factors that influence political awareness across different age groups, this study seeks to provide insights that can promote greater political understanding and engagement.
Examining the Prevalence of Side-Effects and Their Impact on Patient Satisfaction in Antidepressants
Psychiatric antidepressant medications are commonly prescribed to patients struggling with mental health disorders. While these drugs can be effective in treating symptoms, they often come with side-effects that can negatively impact a patient's quality of life. In this study, we analyzed the prevalence of side-effects associated with various medications as well as overall patient satisfaction. Our sample included reviews from 891 patients who were prescribed one of four medications: Zoloft, Lexapro, Cymbalta, and Effexor. We narrowed it down to five side-effects that appeared to be more prevalent within the reviews: weight gain or loss, nausea, decreased libido, insomnia, and dry mouth. We have found that patients who reported experiencing any side-effects tended to have lower satisfaction ratings compared to those who did not. These findings highlight the importance of considering side effects when prescribing psychiatric medications and the need for further research in this area. It is important for clinicians to be aware of how these side-effects affect patient satisfaction in order to optimize treatment outcomes.
Examining University of Dayton Students' Lifestyle Choices to Assess Risk for Potential Type Two Diabetes Diagnoses
Lily Taggart, Ethan Trumbull, Elijah Richter, Maria Wellmann, Elizabeth Lantz
Type 2 diabetes has become a more widespread topic of discussion as a major public health risk; it has become increasingly prevalent across the United States and the average onset of this disease has lowered dramatically in the past decade. Type 2 diabetes is preventable, but chronic, and often a precursor for problems later in life such as Cardiovascular disease. College students are notorious for unhealthy lifestyle habits, specifically poor diet, exercise regime, and substance use. This study aims to determine risk factors of Type 2 diabetes in college students by examining the population of undergraduate students that attend the University of Dayton. In determining the potential risk factors in this young-adult population (age 18-21), the goal is to discover major risk factors early in life and make the information accessible for personal lifestyle changes to prevent Type 2 diabetes.
Experimental Investigation of Phase Change Materials in Solar Thermal Propulsion System
Naga Sree Sumanvitha Vommina
The main objective of this project is to investigate the performance of various Phase Change Materials as the Heat Exchange media in a solar thermal propulsion system. The secondary objective is to visualize and develop the solar thermal propulsion system by running various ground tests using a solar simulator as power source. In this system, the energy from solar light is concentrated into a small cavity through a parabolic reflector and is used to heat the PCM, which in turn heats the propellant and directs it through the nozzle to provide thrust adequate to travel in space. The prototype of the system is first designed using a CAD software and later fabricated into a bench scale model. The model is then set up in the laboratory and connected to the solar simulator. Tests will be conducted with various PCM’s to analyze the best suitable one for this system, i.e., the PCM that gives the best heat transfer from the cavity to the propellant while having a great heat storage capacity. Parameters which would be measured to analyze the same include the Melting point, latent heat of fusion, temperatures of propellant, etc.The project involves design, modelling and fabrication of a bench scale Solar Thermal Ferry that can be used to carry and deliver satellites to Moon or Mars’ orbit from LEO. PCM’s are essential for space travel since the solar energy needs to be stored for the spacecraft to successfully complete the interplanetary missions which consume time and fuel. Without the energy storage system, the spacecraft might need to use conventional fuel ignition systems, which cost money to manufacture and implement in the spacecraft. Moreover, this propulsion system is revolutionary since its only power source is the Sun, which can be simulated by the state-of-the-art solar simulator at the University of Dayton’s Thermodynamics lab.
Explicating the Relationship between Social Media and Offline Political Engagement among American Youths
Rachel Young, Jacob Mantle
The goal of our research is to explore the relationship between political media consumption and political activity among young people in the United States. Specifically, we are interested in examining the role of political media in shaping American young people’s perceptions of the importance of being politically involved. Political participation is essential to a functioning democracy. Discovering how young people’s consumption of political media impacts their perception of the importance of political involvement will provide insight into potential avenues for increasing political participation among young people. The distinction between civic and political activity is illustrated in the literature review. Despite the lack of research, we know political involvement contributes to a stable democracy. By focusing on how to accomplish this among young people, our research will provide practical solutions to ensure the functioning of American democracy for generations to come.Much of our research is focused on social media, particularly Facebook, because of its popularity and the role it has played in the last few presidential elections in the United States. Additionally, social media is prominent among young people with 84% of Americans ages 18-29 reporting they use at least one social media site (Pew Research Center, 2021). Through our secondary research using data collected from 1,228 Americans ages 16-29 (Vromen et al., 2013), we hope to discover what motivates young people, the future of our country, to become politically active.
Exploration of Methods for the Synthetic Pathway of Chiral Organophosphonates
Numan and Brichacek developed a new method for the synthesis of chiral organophoshinates in 2021 with moderate yields and mediocre stereoselectivity. In their publication, they first generated isopropyl phenyl-H-phosphinate (i-Pr PhPHO) as a starting material by reaction of phenylphosphinic acid and liquid 2-propanol at high temperatures in a tightly sealed reaction vial. They reported yields of around 70-75%. However, when done in our lab, the yield was only 11% or less. Several attempts at improving yield centered around increases in temperature, but this ultimately made no changes in yield. Further research uncovered a different method for the synthesis of i-Pr PhPHO proposed by Afarinkia and Yu which utilizes alkyl chloroformates and phenylphosphinic acid. This new reaction yielded upwards of 90% product in our lab. It also takes far less time, requiring only 15 minutes to reflux compared to the 18 hours of the old method. The new method also has the benefit of being safer since it does not require heating a sealed-volume apparatus. We tested a new catalyst, HyperBTM, for its ability to create chiral organophosphinates using Numan’s protocol. Although very similar in structure to Numan’s catalyst (BTM), HyperBTM has an increased amount of steric bulk and slightly larger ring size that we envisioned would be more selective in the reaction. We found that the use of HyperBTM results in trace yields of the desired product. Enantiomeric excess was undetermined due to suspected degradation of the compound during HPLC through a chiral column. An alternative strategy is currently underway that combines BTM with various transition metals to form a cooperative bifunctional catalytic approach that we envision will have greater success.
Exploring a Mathematical Model of Crime Dynamics Including Media Coverage and the Police Force
Adin Stoller, Timothy Parson, Henry Stiles
In this project, MATLAB was used to analyze the model presented in the paper Mathematical Model Analysis of Crime Dynamics Incorporating Media Coverage and Police Force. The Runge Kutta methods of order two and four are implemented. We used the built in functions Ode45, Ode23, and Ode113 to approximate the solution of the model, as well as compare the accuracy. As a pathway to discovery, the initial conditions and differential equations were altered to further improve the accuracy of the model by more accurately reflecting real world conditions. Furthermore, Euler’s Method was utilized and compared to the Runge Kutta method used in ‘ode’ functions to further demonstrate the accuracy of the Runge Kutta method.
Exploring Engaging Opportunities for Professional Development with First-Generation College Students
Professional development opportunities are important for college students to help them advance personally and professionally. It is often difficult for first-generation college students to be aware of these opportunities due to the additional pressures and expectations for this demographic of students. The purpose of this study is to explore the professional development that first-generation college students receive. Using interviews with current first-generation undergraduate students, results showed that first-generation college students were not as aware of professional development opportunities as their non-first-generation peers. Implications from this study can inform practices to assist first-generation college students with intentional professional development opportunities aimed at building their cultural capital and helping prepare them for their post-collegiate experience.
Exploring methods to forecast the intensity scintillation in free space optical communication using a deep learning approach
Mohammad Albaqer Hammid Jwaid Al Ghezi
Free space optical communication (FSO) is an essential technology that uses optical bandwidthto transmit data through the air, it can transmit up to 2.5Gbps through a secure channel.However, there are several challenges an FSO channel encounters, one of which isatmospheric turbulence. Atmospheric turbulence can degrade the optical signal due to effects,such as intensity scintillation and beam wandering. The scintillation index is an often-usedmetric measuring the normalized intensity variance. It can be measured using a scintillometer.However, it is not possible to measure the scintillation index in all locations and at all times.In this work, a machine learning algorithm has been optimized to forecast the scintillation index.Meteorological data, such as air temperature, humidity, and wind speed, is obtained togetherwith the scintillation index at an experiment along a 7 km propagation path in Dayton, OH. Thedata is divided into four equal parts corresponding to the four seasons and the data in eachseason is divided into training and validation data. Long-short-term memory (LSTM) modelshave been optimized and tuned to forecast the scintillation index. The mean absolute error(MAE) is used to compare the predicted scintillation index with the measured scintillation indexand the adaptive moment estimation (Adam) optimizer is used to update the trainableparameters to fit the scintillation. The training process is performed with different LSTM modelson the training data for each season and the performance of the model is measured using thevalidation data for the corresponding season. The LSTM model predicts the scintillation indexwith weighted average MAE around 0.07 for all seasons.
Exploring Negotiators' Perceptions of Communication Techniques and Training in Hostage Negotiation
Crisis/hostage negotiation involves specialized communication, techniques, and training to peacefully end hostage/barricade situations. Limited research has shed light on power, rapport, and verbal matching techniques. Further research from the perspective of the negotiator is needed to explore the application between training and implementation in actual cases. Using a phenomenological approach this study aims to understand what perceptions are held by law enforcement negotiators regarding negotiation tactics and training in a midwestern state. The sample includes four semi-structured interviews of hostage negotiators who have handled crisis/hostage negotiations. Initial coding, thematic analysis, and memoing were used when coding and examining the data. The themes that emerged during data analysis were ‘law enforcement interaction and procedure’, ‘training options and benefits’, ‘conversational skills and demeanor’, and ‘empathy and relationship building’. Negotiators showed enthusiasm for the current training options. Emphasis was placed on the importance of building rapport in negotiations, using Active Listening Skills, and engaging in scenario/roleplay training. Findings and recommendations will be discussed.
Exploring the Ethics of “Sharenting”
“Sharenting” is the rather new phenomenon of parents sharing pictures or videos of their children on social media. This trend has amassed popularity in the digital age, especially with the rise of new social media apps such as Tik Tok. There are more apps than ever to post on. Consequently, parents divulge personal information about their children such as how they look and what they like to do when posting them online. This information helps to shape their digital personas sometimes, long before they decide whether or not to have an online presence. This case study takes a deep dive into the “sharenting” story of 3-year-old Tik Tok star Wren Elenor along with her mom, Jacqueline, and some of the ethical questions related to privacy and autonomy that this story poses.
Exploring the Mental Health Crisis among Division I College Athletes
Nicholas Deluca, Stephanie Joseph, Audrey Scanlon, Andrew Okon, Amanda Gurskis, Olivia Newmark
The goal of this research project was to explore the mental health crisis among Division I college athletes. We looked to better understand how college athletes try to manage anxiety and depression while also balancing academics and athletics here at the University of Dayton.
Exploring the Relationship Between Treatment While Being Incarcerated and Recidivism in Virginia Juvenile Facilities
Beth Lewandowski, Riley Stamm
This study aims to identify significant variables that relate to juveniles, recidivism, and substance use. The goal is to uncover if substance abuse programs will aid juveniles in escaping the criminal justice system. Juveniles were chosen to be studied because, due to their young age, they are more susceptible to the effects of incarceration and, in turn, more likely to recidivate. This study will run a longitudinal analysis on the sample population of 818 male juveniles in Virginia who were between the ages of 11-18 and serving a sentence of 6-18 months. 406 of these juveniles were held in the Barrett Treatment Program during their incarceration, while the 412 male juveniles were held in a traditional facility. Linear and binary logistic regression will be run on the independent variables in order to see if they have any significance to the four variables of recidivism.
Faces of Faith: Monastic Identity and Protestant Theology in the Swiss Reformation
Religious Orders were ever-present in medieval life. Their influence was not limited just to the pulpit or the physical area around monasteries but extended into the daily life of entire kingdoms. Each religious community was unique in the interpretation and expression of its rule of life, both between and within Orders. Religious communities faced pressure from newly converted Protestant authorities alongside theological conversations within their own walls. The new Protestants carried with them an anti-monastic theology that challenged religious communities to reexamine their lives fundamentally. Nowhere were these choices as complicated as in Switzerland, where monks and nuns encountered Lutheran, Zwinglian, Anabaptist, and Reformed theology. I argue that these encounters occurred in conversation with the spiritual traditions of their respective orders, both in those who remained in or left their vows. I specifically look at the first-hand accounts and manuscripts of Swiss Franciscans and Benedictines and place their words in the context of their respective Rule and spiritual traditions. I found that religious that remained Catholic more explicitly expressed their particular spirituality when encountering Protestant theology, while religious that left the habit saw their new beliefs as a different expression, or even a fulfillment, of their original vows. Current historiographical approaches to religious orders in the early Reformation deemphasize individual communities, seeing their interactions with Protestant theology defined by their geography or political status. This paper seeks to approach the Reformation through the lived spiritual experience of religious and recognize the impact their monastic lives had on their decisions.
Facial Gesture Recognition for User Authentication
Ishwar Sandip Jadhav
Do you know the feeling when you go out and realize you left your phone at home? Yes, this feeling is uneasy. Our mobile device these days are more than just a tool for communication, it has a lot of serious data and personal information, such as contacts, emails, photos, and passwords that can put our privacy at risk. A modern security feature like FaceID though prominent is not sufficient to safeguard our data. “For instance, Security researchers attending the annual Black Hat hacker convention in Las Vegas have managed to bypass the iPhone FaceID user authentication in just 120 seconds. These researchers were able to demonstrate that they could bypass the FaceID user authentication and access the iPhone of the victim in less than 120 seconds. To do so, they needed three things: a pair of spectacles, some tape, and a sleeping or unconscious iPhone user”. Therefore, in this project we would like to develop a secure user authentication via facial expression analysis.II. Methods Using facial landmark point detection, facial gesture recognition involves collecting a dataset of facial gesture images or videos, pre-processing the data by identifying and extracting facial landmarks, and extracting features for recognition. A machine learning model then is trained, its performance is evaluated, it is integrated into an authentication system, potential security risks have been considered, and user testing is done. The facial landmark detection and feature extraction method such as MediaPipe is effective and reliable. Key facial features are identified and extracted as part of the approach to produce relevant features for recognition. These characteristics are used to train a machine-learning model to differentiate between genuine and fake facial motions. The user is prompted to make a particular gesture, which the system compares to the trained model to confirm their identity, spoof-blocking methods and potential security theft.III. Significance When paired with facial recognition technology, facial gesture recognition is a promising technique that can offer additional benefits for unlocking mobile devices. Asking the user to make a specific facial gesture in addition to face recognition, adds an extra layer of security and can assist prevent unauthorized access to the device. Also, instead of inputting passcodes or utilizing fingerprint scanners, face movements can unlock a smartphone more quickly and conveniently. Facial gesture recognition can also increase accessibility for people who find entering a passcode or using a fingerprint scanner challenging. Last but not least, it can provide a pleasant and unique user experience by letting users select memorable or meaningful actions that increase a sense of ownership.
Faith & Foliage
William Hach, Kieran Winthrop, Thomas Skiba
This project is a literature review on several articles about the intersection between religious beliefs and opinions on nature and sustainability. Our findings include the fact that there is a very wide and notable gap between the environmental practices of eastern and western religions, and that all religion as a whole leads to more environmentally conscious beliefs. We also found that these practices go back to very old civilizations and the connection is not recent.
Faith Identity: Exploring the Lives of Non-Christian Students at a Private, Religiously-Based University
High sense of belonging in college is linked with higher academic and social success for students. Defined as social support and connectedness, belonging is seen to be lower in the minority groups on campus, such as those that do not identify as White, heterosexual, and Christian. The purpose of this study is to investigate the lived experiences of non-Christian students at a private, Catholic university to find how they develop a sense of belonging at an institution that does not align with their own identities. This study includes qualitative data from 10 interviews with undergraduate, non-Christian identifying students at the University of Dayton. Findings suggest that a need for greater representation of alternate faiths, some mental or emotional strain on students as a result of non-conformity, and a reliance on other identities to build connections. Insights from this study can help inform religious diversity professionals at private, Catholic universities to build better, more creative ways to include the non-dominant student group into the community of the institution.