Assessing the Impact of COVID-19 and Childhood Immunization Rates in the United States
Laura L. Bender, Hannah Marie Derespiris
Vaccines are an important part of the health and well-being of children. The CDC notes that vaccines are a safe and effective way to prevent infectious diseases and strengthen their immune systems (2019). HPV, measles, and polio are among some of the few potentially life threatening diseases that vaccines can prevent (CDC, 2019). Staying up to date on vaccinations is important for people of all ages, but especially for children and infants since their immune systems are not fully developed (CDC, 2019). Through childhood immunizations, the immune system produces antibodies to help recognize and protect against fatal diseases (CDC, 2019). In the US, during the pandemic, there was a decrease in the number of children getting their regular vaccines. According to a study done in the United States, “Among children aged <24 months and children aged>2–6 years, DTaP doses administered declined an overall median of 15.7% and 60.3%, respectively, across all jurisdictions compared with the same period during 2018 and 2019” (Patel et al., 2021). Further research needs to be done regarding the exact reasons for the decrease in vaccinations during the pandemic, but regardless, there are potentially severe health ramifications for children being unvaccinated. The purpose of this poster is to examine changes in childhood vaccination rates since the pandemic began, its implications for the health of children, and to discuss future initiatives of vaccine programming.
Assessing the Impact of COVID-19 on Psychiatric Calls for UD EMS
Danielle Carmela Brown, Avery Lyn Lewis
Mental health has become increasingly discussed and studied in recent decades. The COVID-19 pandemic led to unprecedented times and numerous restraints for society as a whole, but specifically, for the education system and its students. From the pandemic, isolation periods, uncertainty in class format and structure, and fear of the future all contribute to mental stressors during this time. In a study conducted at Texas A&M University, 71% of college students indicated an increase of stress and anxiety due to the COVID-19 pandemic (Son et al., 2020). Additionally, nearly 20% of college students surveyed during the pandemic experienced suicidal thoughts or ideations (Wang et al., 2020). As students and collegiate EMS providers at the University of Dayton, we are interested in studying the impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic on mental health crises which can be reflected by the amount of psychiatric calls for UD EMS. Specifically, the data, provided by UD EMS Assistant Chief of Operations, was drawn from 2018 through 2022 and compares the total number of EMS calls to the number of psychiatric calls throughout that period. During the 2020-2021 school year in the pandemic, UD EMS responded to a total of 7 psychiatric emergencies out of 110 total calls (6.36%). In January 2022 alone, UD EMS responded to 5 psychiatric emergencies out of 34 total calls (14.7%), which is the highest number ever recorded in a single month. These totals do not reflect the students with mental health crises that receive assistance from the University of Dayton Police Department without the intervention of UD EMS. The purpose of this poster is to recognize how COVID-19 has increased mental health issues on the University of Dayton’s campus and to provide a comprehensive guide of mental health resources available to students.https://www.jmir.org/2020/9/e21279/ https://www.jmir.org/2020/9/e22817/
Assessing the link between DEFB1 gene mutation and the predisposition to dental caries
Max W. Hartwig, Alexander B. Kurdziel
Caries, more commonly known as cavities, occur in the oral cavity when bacteria attack the tooths’ enamel causing tooth decay (National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research, 2019). According to Dye (2015), caries are extremely common with 91% of adults 20 to 64 having had dental caries in their permanent teeth. While there are over 700 different species of bacteria within the oral cavity, there are important immune barriers that fend off these bacteria (National Institute of Health, 2019). Beta defensin 1, one of these immune barriers, is a protein that is encoded by the DEFB1 gene (NCBI, 2022). This protein is commonly found on the enamel of teeth and serves as one of the first lines of defense against invading germs (University of Pittsburgh Schools of the Health Sciences, 2010). A mutation or polymorphism of this gene can be a genetic cause for an increased amount of caries in an individual (Ozturk, 2010). According to Conroy (1993), as much as 40-65% of the risk for dental caries can be due to genetic factors. In a more recent study, the presence of the variant allele of the DEFB1 marker rs11362 (G-20A) was associated with a five-fold increase in decayed, missing teeth due to caries (Ozturk, 2010). The purpose of this poster is to discuss research on the link between the predisposition to caries and the mutation of the DEFB1 gene. Afterwards, we will discuss literature that strategizes how to prevent dental caries in people with the predisposition.
Assessment of Aggressive Behavior in a Transgenic Mouse Model
Kiara Eileen Bahamonde, Ben Klocke
The Tube Dominance Test has been widely used to assess social dominance, aggression, and social hierarchy in mice. The purpose of our study was to determine if the Tube Dominance Test can be used to identify aggression and social dominance in transgenic mice that lack a specific calcium regulatory protein. To test this hypothesis wild type and knockout mice of both sexes were habituated with the clear tube and handled for three days. For five days, the mice were trained to pass through the tube. For testing, two mice meet in the middle of the clear tube. Due to limited space within the tube, only one mouse can pass at a time; therefore, one mouse must submit to the other. Preliminary analyses are currently being conducted using this behavioral assay to assess aggression levels in this mouse strain.
Assessment of risk factors associated with anterior cruciate ligament injury through video analysis of drop vertical jump before and after gluteal muscle strengthening program.
Julianna D. Leonard
Two-dimensional video analysis of the drop vertical jump test has been shown to be an effective and accessible screening tool in assessing an individual’s risk for anterior cruciate ligament injury. High degrees of dynamic knee valgus during landing from a drop vertical jump suggest increased risk for ACL tears, specifically in female athletes, who are at greatest risk. Activation of the stabilizing muscles of the hip has also been shown to play a role in reducing these knee movements that predispose an individual to ACL injury. The purpose of this study was to use the drop vertical jump injury screening protocol to assess ACL injury risk in female volleyball players before and after their participation in a six-week training program targeting the strengthening of the gluteus medius muscle. Two data collection sessions were completed six weeks apart. During both data collections, tape markers were placed on the hips, knees, and ankles of the participants. Five video trials of the drop vertical jump were recorded and analyzed to determine maximum knee valgus during landing from the drop vertical jump. Between the two data collections, the subjects participated in their regularly scheduled weekly training sessions, which included exercises for the gluteus medius muscle. The results from the pre- and post-training data collections were presented to the participants in a report including details of their risk classification, along with general recommendations for improvement. The pre- and post-training injury screening data were compared to evaluate the efficacy of the gluteal muscle strengthening program in decreasing risk factors associated with ACL injury.
A systematic review of nursing cognitive workload for improved patient care and reduced Healthcare Acquired Infections
The COVID-19 pandemic pushed the limits of healthcare systems worldwide warranting studies to improve preparedness for future outbreaks. This paper’s purpose was to synthesize and identify missing gaps in the literature of nurse cognitive workload and its relation to Healthcare Acquired Infections (HAIs) through the use of a systematic literature review. The results suggest that undesirable outcomes in nursing are due to increases in workload and stress which result from factors such as inadequate staffing, lack of communication, interruptions, and negative attitudes. To understand the effect of environmental factors on nurses’ workload and subsequently the HAI, we need to have a tool for measuring the workload. A literature gap exists in defining nurse workload related to infection, and new measuring methods which can accurately assess nurses’ cognitive workload are required.
Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs) and Communication
Kathleen Megan Crump
There is an increasing amount of research relating to young children diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs) and facilitating their communication skills. This project addresses why it is important to assist in communication with children with ASDs at a young age, what interventions can be implemented in order to achieve this goal, and the ways in which peer and adult interactions can make an impact. Each of these aspects of engagement in the classroom are important to facilitate positive experiences for students with ASDs that leads to an improvement of communication skills which are applicable in all aspects of life.
A Visual Experience in support of the National Park Service
Kaitlyn B. Acra, Marya Nabil Khamis Al Zadjali, Balkis Mohammed Alhalal, Sydney N. Eldridge, Anna Caroline Gorman, Trent Ryan Howell, Jack H. Kargl, Carlene R. Landers, Kasidi Lynn Meyers, Grace E. Reilly, Joseph S. Swisher, William Baran Symank, Kelsey M. Vonderhaar
Students enrolled in VAD415 Graphic Design III were tasked with creating a meaningful, effective, and engaging experience using aspects of visual identity, branding, and environmental graphics to guide visitors in their navigation to the Dayton Aviation Heritage National Historical Park located in the historic Wright Dunbar neighborhood. The students began by meeting with several National Aviation Heritage Area (NAHA) partners and making several site visits to the National Park, located just .3 miles from the intersection of the newly renovated W. Third St. Bridge and Edwin C. Moses Blvd. Students worked collaboratively to gather resources, research the park’s content and history, and manage communications with members of NAHA and the National Park Service (NPS). Four student teams then each designed a creative visual package including a directional way-finding system and corresponding environmental graphics. Teams are presenting their design proposals to NAHA leadership and community partners with the potential for a team’s design to move into production and implementation. Working with a local non-profit organization on this community-driven project has been a tremendous experiential learning opportunity for the students. Special thanks to Mackensie Wittmer, Executive Director, NAHA, for proposing this project. Documentation of team research and project development are on display in the Department of Art and Design in Fitz Hall during the closing evening of the Stander Symposium and closing reception for the annual student Horvath Exhibition.
Barriers to Physical Activity for College Students
Grant A. Hirzel, Jacob Duncan Maloney, Mark Silvio Manfredi, Zachary Joseph Pohlman, Nicholas Roman Riordan
This study looks to examine certain factors that affect levels of physical activity in college students, how active college students are, and how activity level is impacted by location on campus as well as age. The primary study question is: “What are the barriers to exercising for college students?”. The data for this study will be collected through surveys sent out to UD students ranging from undergraduate freshmen to seniors. The goal is to be able to collect data from 30 students from each class and have a diverse group of majors and extracurriculars that give a true picture of students on campus. The variables that will be measured are frequency of exercise, type of exercise, barrier to not exercising more, upperclassman or underclassman, gender, and proximity of address to gym. A google survey with a variety of questions will be utilized to collect as much data as possible from our target population. The data collection will take place from March 22nd - April 5th. After data collection, analysis will take place by putting the different responses into groups and determining the different factors college students have when it comes to participating in physical activity. The results will be analyzed after data collection around April 5th.
Behavioral analysis of a transgenic Drosophila model of Tau mediated toxicity in Alzheimer's Disease
Prajakta D. Deshpande, Liam Michael Dwyer
Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a fatal progressive neurodegenerative disorder marked by a gradual loss of cognitive function and memory loss. Alzheimer’s pathology includes the extracellular accumulation of amyloid beta 42 plaques (Aβ42) and intracellular accumulation of neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs) in the brain. In AD, Tau protein, a microtubule associated protein (MAP), gets hyperphosphorylated which results in the intracellular accumulation of NFTs due to destabilization of microtubules. We employ the Gal4/UAS system in Drosophila melanogaster to misexpress human Tau mutant (TauR406W) which mimics AD like neuropathology. It has been previously shown in our lab that misexpression of human TauR406W within the developing fly retina (GMR>TauR406W) exhibits reduced and rough eye phenotype. Here, in this study we will assess Tau mediated toxicity in a transgenic fly model by behavioral analysis. We will misexpress human TauR406W in the nervous system by using Elav-Gal4 driver. One of the behavioral assays such as a locomotion assay will increase our understanding of effects of tau mediated toxicity in AD. Here we will present the behavioral effects of AD transgenic flies.
BetterU: A daily activity monitoring pervasive mobile application
Sankarshan Dasgupta, Claire I. Gutsmiedl, Vatsa Sanjay Patel
The majority of daily activities (including eating on time, drinking enough water, moderate exercise, sleep, and others) are essential to maintaining a healthy lifestyle. A plethora of studies show that ignoring critical health-related tasks and healthy lifestyle habits (i.e., proper nourishment, work-life balance) could lead to anomalies such as health complications and chronic illnesses (including type-2 diabetes). In this research, we seek to explore and design social-technical tools to help people avoid such anomalies. We started by exploring the lifestyle needs of the students at our University. Our findings show that the majority of users are unwilling to make the effort or sometimes forget to record their daily activity routine using the current tracking applications. Some forgot to self-track because of career changes or shifting settings and lifestyles. This work will present the design of a mobile application that will monitor and assist routine on critical tasks. The App enables the user to make informed choices and fix any unusual behavior in their schedule. Further, in order to address participants' unwillingness to record their activities, we integrated critical ubiquitous computing components in our App including smartphone auto-tracking and GPS. First, auto-tracking components will offer our end users the ability to comprehensively track, monitor, and document their activities with ease. Second, the GPS and time access working in tandem offers them the most acceptable activity performance data handling within that time period. Consequently resulting in an undetectable design that produces the most accurate results conceivable. The App is set up, with the unique combination of GPS and time allowing the end-user to track their health activities, while also promoting self-monitoring and event schedule.In this symposium, we will present our design process and demonstrate how our App may support end-users (including our University students) to track their daily habits and activities.
Beyond Biology: Using Nature in the Classroom for All Subjects and Development of Elementary Age Students
Noah Maynard Lorbach
Time in nature is commonly utilized for biology classes and science projects. There is research, however, which shows that time in nature is beneficial for education in all school subjects including: English, history, math, and foreign language. In addition, teaching elementary age children in the outdoors allows for greater social and emotional development occurring beyond the typical classroom.
Blend Prediction Model for Freezing Point of Jet Fuel Range Hydrocarbons
Allison Ann Coburn
Sustainable aviation fuels are a near-term solution for aviation greenhouse gas emission reduction. To become a sustainable aviation fuel, a synthetic fuel derived from a renewable source must have specifications written into ASTM D7566 as an annex to regulate its quality. However, before a sustainable aviation fuel can be added, it must be thoroughly evaluated and approved by all stakeholders through an time and volume intensive, as well as expensive process described in ASTM D4054. For this reason, the prescreening process is being developed. Prescreening is a process to measure or predict, from very small sample volumes, key fuel properties that are crucial for operability of an aircraft. The intention of the prescreening process is to inform suppliers of possible risks to passing the evaluations of ASTM D4054. Freezing point is one of the critical safety stipulations that require fuel to remain in liquid state under severe weather conditions. Methods to predict the freezing point of hydrocarbon blends are scarce in current literature. These pre-existing blend prediction models are either not validated within the typical temperature range for jet fuel standards, or they contain an interaction coefficient which is only obtained experimentally. The goal of this study is to develop a blending rule to accurately predict the freezing point of combinations of jet fuel range hydrocarbons. To do so, blends of hydrocarbons with freezing points varying from one another were tested. Binary and ternary blends containing bicyclohexyl, cis-1,2-dimethylcyclohexane, and an alternative jet fuel (POSF 12968) were tested along with separate tests including binary and ternary blends of tridecane, cis-1,2-dimethylcyclohexane, and trans-decahydronaphthalene. The experimental values obtained were compared with linear predictive blending model results. A new model based on Gibbs free energy is reliable for neat molecules, however, is currently being developed to predict the freezing point of hydrocarbon blends.
Breaking Cryptography with Quantum Computers and Shor's Algorithm
Thomas C. Lehmenkuler
Many current encryption schemes rely on the difficulty of factoring large numbers. Shor's Algorithm is a quantum factorization method. This presentation will motivate the ideas and methods behind Shor's Algorithm, as well as the mathematical theory behind using quantum computing to practically use Shor's Algorithm.
Bring Me Everyone except for You
Dylan Read Eckhart
As a country we present ourselves as a land for people to come and seek refuge but we make it very difficult. As a country we are very hypocritical when it comes to immigration. The statue of liberty stands with its accepting words written on it but we do not live by those words as a country. I will explore the Artistic responses to the border crisis and the impact it has on both sides of the border. I will also be looking at the contrast between the border crisis in Ukraine compared to our own. I will be looking at Tanya Aguiñiga and Tom Keifer's work.
Building Social Cohesion and Collective Efficacy among Students in Off-Campus Neighborhoods
Thomas Glen Bobick-Braybrooks, Kaylin G. Florentino, Benjamin Russell Ronald Jones, Christian D. Kelly
This research is a semester-long course project in SOC 324: Communities & Crime. As part of this project, we have identified a crime-related problem in our neighborhoods/living spaces and apply community-building and environmental design approaches to offer recommendations and solutions that address the problem. Our work emphasizes the importance of social cohesion and sense of community in preventing crime and fostering feelings of safety on and around campus.
Building Stress Resilience in Undergraduates: An Examination of Self-Affirmation and Stress Resilience in Students
While a student’s time in higher education is expected to be a little overwhelming at times undergraduate students are facing stress and anxiety at alarming rates. The purpose of this qualitative study is to investigate how a simple daily practice of self-affirmation could potentially influence shifts in undergraduate college students’ social and mental well-being. Over a six-week time span, eight students practiced self-affirmation practices and completed bi-weekly virtual reflections regarding the current state of their stress and stress management. Results show students experiencing better overall resilience when stress occurs. The intent of this study is to advance knowledge regarding how to best promote holistic well-being in the lives of undergraduate students.
Bumblebees in Solar Prairies
Nicolette A. Engelmeier, Grace A. Janszen, Morgan E. Mieland
Bumblebees (Bombus Latreille) are an interest of many ecologists today due to the increasing decline of pollinators. A pollinator, such as the bumblebee, provides a large amount of service to an ecosystem since they aid in the survival and nutrition of plants and animals in their area. The data collected will help to understand if the solar prairie is being used by pollinators in the area and if it is beneficial to their survival. The goal of our research is to study areas in which a bumblebee may hibernate, between man-made or natural areas. We dug 10cm holes near both man-made and natural structures and searched through the soil to look for a singular queen bee. We used natural structures such as trees and plants that would provide protection. Man-made structures that we focused on were fences and mainly the solar panels in the solar prairie. We were not able to find any bumblebees during our search. We believe the main obstacle in our search was due to the warm weather patterns during a typically cold season, which may have caused the bumblebees to come out of hibernation early. As a result of this weather, we began searching for evidence of the bumblebees using the solar prairie as an ecosystem to survive in. We conducted bumblebees patterns of flight and foraging patterns inside of the solar prairie, which is important for the pollination of native plants in the area and the survival of other species in the ecosystem.
Callery pear (Pyrus calleryana) invasion is predicted by forest edge not plant species richness in grasslands
Michaela Jean Woods
Fallow agricultural fields are target landscapes for ecosystem restoration; however, they are degraded and susceptible to plant invasion, requiring extensive management. Pyrus calleryana is an invasive tree in Eastern USA that escaped cultivation and became a prominent invader. The ecology of this tree is relatively unknow, but it grows in dense monocultures, outcompeting native counterparts, and is challenging to remove. Identifying landscapes that are vulnerable to invasion may allow for targeted management and could inform land manager decision making. Here, we assessed the level of invasion in restored prairies as well as their surrounding land use, plant communities and soil chemistry, to determine if these metrics could predict the invasion of P. calleryana. We selected two invaded and two uninvaded sites, sampled 25 quadrats in each and measured distance of quadrat to roads, forests or residences, P. calleryana presence/absence and abundance, plant species richness and cover, and soil moisture, pH and nutrients. We found higher species richness in uninvaded sites than invaded sites, contradicting the biotic resistance hypothesis. Invaded sites had more P. calleryana where grasses and forbs covered less area, indicating open niche space for invasion. Soils in uninvaded sites had higher pH, organic matter and ammonia availability, but lower phosphorus, nitrate and micronutrient content, aligning with our hypothesis that increased organic matter may alter nutrient ratios to promote native species. Finally, P. calleryana was more abundant near forest edges, but was not invasion was not related to roads or residences. Forest edges harbor bird perches which may facilitate dispersal of P. calleryana. Taken together, P. calleryana is more likely to invade on forest edges, suggesting targeted restoration in those areas; however, plant species richness and soil nutrient content may not be an appropriate indicator for determining the suitability of target landscapes.
Campus Sustainability Footprint Assessment at the University of Dayton
Cassie Marie Austin
The Campus Sustainability Footprint Assessment provides a baseline summary of the University of Dayton’s sustainability footprint and how it has changed over the past ~10 years. Although UD has regularly collected and reported sustainability data, this report synthesizes the data to assess sustainability progress, identify trends, and provide recommendations for how to reduce emissions and increase sustainability practices on campus. In partnership with sustainability tracking efforts of Facilities Management, the data used in this project was collected for previous reports to the Sustainability Tracking, Assessment & Rating System (STARS) and Sustainability Indicator Management Analysis Platform (SIMAP).
Career Prediction based on Historical Background
Abhijeet Gupta, Shruti Ajay Singh
The project is about career predictor, which is based on an individual's education and working history. This data is mainly collected from LinkedIn, where one can see the person's career history, including the school, type of degree, working history. The collected data is categorized as the type of industry, work experience, number of degrees, and ranking of the latest school attended, and the number of publications. The data is used to train career classification model.
Chaminade Culture at UD and Symbolic Convergence Theory
Charles Jones, Carson Rhoades, Clare Loesch, Thanh Ha, Lily Harvey
Changing and Improving Dental Hygiene in Long Term Care Facilities
Julia Kathryn Kilroy, Charles Austin Spencer
One of the most significant challenges to optimal dental health is simply practicing everyday oral hygiene. A recent study suggests that Porphyromonas gingivalis, a bacteria that causes gum disease, is also related to different forms of dementia, specifically Alzheimer’s disease and vascular dementia. Porphyromonas gingivalis can move from the mouth to the brain and damage neurons, leading to memory loss and in time, Alzheimer’s. The majority of nursing home residents are unable to brush their own teeth or dentures, and their primary caretakers frequently lack the necessary training to do so. Furthermore, data shows that most residents in nursing homes are covered by Medicare, which does not cover annual checkups and is necessary for the potential prevention of dementia. Frequent dental check-ups, as well as regular dental cleaning and flossing will help to avoid the need for more invasive procedures later on when the person with dementia may be less able to perform adequate oral hygiene on themselves. Since Medicare doesn’t cover regular dental visits, an alternative solution is teaching healthcare workers to perform necessary oral hygiene. Another solution to this issue is to change the current Medicare coverage to include annual dental visits for those covered by Medicare. This poster proposal illustrates this association of poor oral hygiene and dementia and proposes solutions including educating assisted living workers on the importance of oral hygiene and the need for Medicare coverage of routine dental care.
Characterization of an Exact Electron Correlation Symmetry in Alternant Hydrocarbons Using Molecular Orbital Theory
Electron-electron repulsion in a quantum system facilitates a specific kind of interaction between electrons known as electron correlation. Moreover, the movement of an electron is influenced by surrounding electrons, the extent of which is described by the correlation energy. Code written in the mid-1980s using the Fortran 77 programming language outlined the Pariser-Parr-Pople (PPP) Method, and provided all data analyzed herein. The initial focus of the current project was aimed at re-writing the PPP program in MATLAB in order to obtain new information. Slater determinants will be used to show all possible results of single-electron excitations, and in the future, those of double excitations. Furthermore, note that each singlet state in a given molecule can be expressed as a linear combination of single-electron excitations, the coefficients of which will be discussed as a function of the range of repulsion. This repulsion distance will also be studied as it affects transition energy, and the repulsion integral decay formula is plotted against interatomic distance. In conclusion, the two-center, two-electron repulsion integral increases as the electrons move closer together, as does the energy associated with the 1Ag+ state, while the 1Ag- singlet state energy increases initially, then decreases.
Childhood Trauma Exposure Increases Long COVID Risk
Julie Messinger, Cady Ujvari, Alicia Wilhelm Villanueva Van Den Hurk
While long-term physical and psychological effects of COVID-19 remain unknown, it is clear that a proportion of COVID-19 survivors develop complications following acute illness, herein referred to as long COVID (LC) syndrome. Females appear to be at higher risk for LC, and also have higher rates of childhood trauma, which is associated with a heightened inflammatory response to stress. The present study investigated the impact of childhood trauma on COVID-19 illness course and recovery. Participants (N=244) completed online self-report measures of premorbid health, COVID-19 positivity, symptoms, and recovery, along with measures of depression, anxiety, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and childhood (CTE) and recent (RTE) traumatic experiences. Compared to recovered participants (N=110), the LC group (N=158) was older and predominantly female. Those who reported one or more CTE were nearly 3-fold more likely to develop LC (OR=2.87, CI, 0.95 to 8.60) while those who endorsed two or more CTE were 4.5 times more likely (OR=4.56, CI, 1.61 to 12.33). A binary logistic regression analysis revealed that chest pain (p<.001), fatigue (p=.031), burning sensation (p=.002), and olfactory hallucinations (p<.001) during acute COVID, along with sex (p=.001) and age (p<.001) predicted LC. Compared to pre-COVID diagnoses, rates of PTSD (p<.001), depression (p<.001), and generalized anxiety (Χ2=12.32, p<.001) increased across the entire sample and current PTSD (p=.001, partial η2=.042), depression (p<.001, partial η2=.048), and anxiety (p=.017, partial η2=.022) severity were higher in the LC group. These findings suggest that childhood trauma or early adversity may prove relevant to the development of long COVID via central nervous system changes and dysfunction in the form of central sensitization, somatosensory disruptions, and/or dysautonomia, resulting from a heightened inflammatory response. Psychiatric outcomes should be assessed following acute COVID-19, and future research is needed to determine the unique contributions of COVID-19 and general pandemic stress to post-illness mental health.
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