Chronic Administration of the Novel SERCA2 Activator CDN1163 Induces Behavioral and Neurochemical Effects in Mice.
Intracellular calcium homeostasis is essential for neuronal function and survival, with the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) being a major internal calcium reservoir. Our group focuses on the sarco/endoplasmic reticulum (SR/ER) calcium (Ca2+)-ATPase (SERCA) pump that is a pivotal regulator of cytosolic calcium levels. Compelling evidence indicates that these P-type ATPases play a critical role in brain pathophysiology. Hence, SERCA pumps comprise an emerging pharmacological target for debilitating brain diseases. Interestingly, studies suggest that a novel SERCA activator, namely CDN1163, may rescue motor and cognitive dysfunction in rodent models of Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s diseases. As little is known about the behavioral and neurochemical consequences of CDN1163 administration, in the context of this study, we are presenting the effects of acute and chronic CDN1163 administration on locomotor activity and relevant affective behaviors, as well as on monoaminergic neurotransmission in naïve C57BL/6J mice of both sexes.
Liliana G. Alton, Caleb Joshua Cecil, John Patrick Sheehan, Erica Kristy Wojcikiewicz
Climate change is a growing concern for many as weather extremities begin to become commonplace across the globe. Human action is the main cause of this, and we intend to explore how people think about climate change in relation to their religious beliefs, along with how official religious dogmas talk about the nature of climate change. Using research from a variety of social science studies, we examined how different geographic regions and demographics have reacted to climate change in relation to their religious influences. We looked at a range of religious practices from around the world and how these groups have responded to climate change. The influence of both cultural and personal religion does impact the relevance and sense of responsibility that people feel towards climate change.
Alexa Marie Roberts
In this presentation, we will be working with the top causes of death related to medical conditions tracked by the CDC. I examine this data throughout the years separated by season to find trends that may repeat annually. Additionally, I break it down by state and region to find more patterns that are dependent on location. I also take population into account and normalize my data to better compare the impact of each disease with a caveat comparison to trends seen in COVID-19.
Cloud Connected Real-Time Oil Condition Monitoring of UtilityTransformers using Impedance Spectroscopy
Birhanu Desta Alemayehu
We present the use of impedance spectroscopy to diagnose the oil condition inutility transformers for condition monitoring. Actual transformer oil sampleshaving different dissolved fault gas and moisture concentrations are obtained andcharacterized by analysing their impedance spectrum over a range of frequenciesfrom 1 kHz to 100 kHz using AD5933 from Analog Devices. From theexperimental results, it has been shown that the impedance spectrum of atransformer oil sample is related to its relative saturation percentage. Here, wepropose an integrated cloud-connected smart system which can continuouslymonitor the condition of oil present inside a utility transformer in real-time. As aproof of concept, the impedance values of oil samples are measured. Theimpedance data obtained is transmitted to a cloud computing interface where thedata is logged and processed. The proposed integrated system is reliable,inexpensive and suitable for implementation on utility transformers.
CNN-based Machine Learning Approaches to Skin Lesion Classification for Skin Cancer Detection and Diagnosis.
Supun Samudika De Silva
Skin cancer is a cancer type with a very high mortality rate and an incidence rate. It is also a cancer type that is known to be treatable if detected early. However, the diagnosis accuracy of a human expert is highly dependent on their experience in visual inspection of skin pigmentation. An automated detection of skin cancer based on the analysis of an image of the suspected affected area would be helpful to physicians or dermatologists in order to present a fast and reliable diagnosis. Presently, Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs) are one of the Artificial Intelligence techniques used widely for computer aided detection and diagnosis of skin lesions. In some cases, the images that are intended to be used towards training a CNN are preprocessed by segmenting the lesion area, correcting illuminations, applying color constancy, removing attention to artefacts around the lesion, etc. Dermoscopy images are a type of images that are being used with CNNs other than standard photographed clinical images. Most of the time, classification of the images is completely based on features generated using CNNs. Transfer learning is one heavily utilized approach that uses pre-trained networks that are mostly very deep and are able to be fine-tuned for skin lesion images to generate features. This presentation introduces common approaches followed to preprocess images and learning techniques that are used with CNNs followed by descriptions of two current methods that utilize CNNs to classify skin lesions for skin cancer diagnosis.
Allison G. Gerberick
This presentation will outline the findings from a qualitative online study looking at the ways that the Covid-19 pandemic influenced alcohol use among college students. This analysis will examine alcohol use during the pandemic by undergraduate students, above the age of 18, coming from various universities predominantly located in Ohio and surrounding states. Students were recruited through several social media platforms to participate in the survey. The findings of the survey revealed statistically significant differences in consumption between men and women. Specifically, it found that men often consumed more alcohol during the pandemic while women were more likely to consume less. The main aim of this presentation is to provide further information about the pandemic’s influence on alcohol in order to encourage safe consumption.
Trevor Lance Burrola, Henry Martin Gerhardt, Taniayah La'Shae O'Quinn-Sims, Madeline G. Terzola
Adequate resources to promote health and well-being during the college experience is important to maintain mental and physical health. However, students may lack the means to utilize services or resources contributing to overall health and well-being while in college. The purpose of this research was to assess what health resources college students actually use and prioritize when accounting for their varying financial statuses. The design of this study was a cross-sectional study with University of Dayton students. The research team utilized Google Forms to distribute our survey to the UD students with the intent of creating a snowball effect to increase participation. The survey was administered to those in sororities, club sports teams, friends, and roommates of all undergraduate grade levels. Commuter students were excluded from the study due to these individuals having a different living situation than those living on-campus. To calculate our results, scores were computed for: financial status of students on campus, the prioritization of on-campus expenses by students, and knowledge/usage of available health resources. We used varying scales to assign point values to each answer. Bivariate correlations were used to examine the correlation between variables. The results of the study will be provided during the presentation.
William John Thompson
Police militarization has been a popular topic within the media for the past several years. In reality, however, police militarization has existed since the early 20th century Prohibition era. College students appear to be a marginalized group when it comes to studying police militarization. This study aims to address the issue of police militarization by examining the perceptions of college students using an online survey design deployed on different social media platforms. The sample consisted of 299 college students who were mainly females and Caucasian. Bivariate correlations were conducted to examine the relationship between police militarization and perceptions of the police. Findings indicate that students' support for militarization in response to protests was positively correlated with positive views of the police. A crosstabulation test was also run to determine the relationship between several question concerning college student's perceptions of militarized police deployed to protests and several factors. Implications of the study will be discussed.
Owen O. Freeman
The study explored the relationship between viewing social media videos of police misconduct and their perceptions of the police. The study used an online survey deployed across several social media platforms. The sample consisted of 299 undergraduates who were mainly females and Caucasian. Bivariate correlations were conducted to assess the relationship between viewing videos of police misconduct and perceptions of the police. The findings indicate that viewing videos of police misconduct may not influence the current perceptions of police among a sample of college students. The findings and implications will be discussed.
Matthew Dennis Spangler, Michael Weinstein
The DNA sequences of genomes encode the recipes for making functional cellular products, notably proteins, and switches that regulate when these products are made. While the genetic code for proteins has been known for decades, a similar code for the regulative switches is lacking. This presents a major challenge to understanding the genetic basis of life, as these switches (called cis-regulatory elements or CREs) may outnumber protein-coding genes by 20-50 fold. Both in vivo and in silico approaches exist to study CREs, but the former approaches are generally low throughput and not up to the scale of vast genomes, and the latter lack validation of predictions. We are merging in silico and in vivo approaches to identify the CREs controlling genes responsible for a fruit fly pigmentation trait. Here, we are leveraging the knowledge of six CREs that switch on the transcription of five different genes from a fruit fly tergite pigmentation gene regulatory network (GRN) as well as 10 predicted CREs identified through bioinformatic means. We are using the SCRMshaw bioinformatic tool to identify novel predicted CREs controlling genes within this GRN based on underlying similarities in the DNA sequences of the known CREs. From this novel list, we tested 44 for CRE activity in in vivo reporter transgene assays. Novel validated CREs will be compared with the known six to reveal what the molecular functions are for the common DNA motifs as the next stage of this research project. The encoding of information in CREs is a universal feature of life, so these results bear upon life at every level, including the betterment of the human condition
Kathleen E. Schweninger
Previous research indicates that civic engagement is declining in the United States. This decline has contributed to many of the systemic challenges Americans face today. However, diverse models of civic engagement are emerging which cultivate positive change for communities and individuals. One such model is the Community Conversations series designed by Re-Imagining America: Dayton, Ohio (RIA Dayton). RIA Dayton is reevaluating how community success and satisfaction are measured by creating new metrics of wellbeing through a series of Community Conversations with Dayton residents. This study uses a combination of survey and interview data to understand Community Conversations participants’ perceptions and practices of civic engagement. Results showed that Community Conversation participants frequently engage in both low and high-level civic engagement activities, with the latter resulting in more positive outcomes. Based on survey and interview responses, participants reported positive outcomes such as having the opportunity to engage in meaningful conversation and to develop shared goals.
Comparing Social Bonds and Academic Performance of Adjudicated Adolescents Residing in a Facility v.s. Community
Nick A. Trageser
This study examined the link between social bonds and academic performance among adjudicated juveniles residing in the community versus a residential facility. Self-reported grades and variables used in the study were pulled from the Pathways to Desistance data (N = 1,354), a longitudinal study conducted with juveniles from Pennsylvania and Arizona. The data set consists of juveniles between to ages of 14 to 18, asked to rate their grades, bonding to teachers, and school orientation while residing in the community or a correctional facility. A bivariate correlation was conducted to examine the relationship between social bonds and academic performance. Findings indicate a weak to a moderately significant relationship between school bonding and grades. However, juveniles in the community had a stronger significant association between social bonds and grades. Findings and implications will be discussed.
Concussion Protocols Over the Years: How Has our Knowledge of Concussions Grown to Help Athletes in the Future
Molly E. Gates, Charles Scott Guggemos, Evan David Knight, John Christopher Miller, Rachel Ann Oldendorf, Shannon M. Theobald
Many athletes have suffered from concussions without any consideration or treatment. Athletes have been told to just "walk it off" rather than actually go through concussion testing and medical advice. Our presentation is focused on how athletes have been treated over the years looking at past concussion protocols to the most recent medical discoveries. We are speaking to past and present athletes as well as athletic trainers and athletic directors that span over 30 years to get a deeper understanding through first-hand experiences with concussions. Our goal is to highlight the progress and knowledge change on concussions over the years and bring awareness to the general public.
Tesfalem Gebretsadik Mehari
This study is about identifying the potential contaminants for the Great Miami Buried Valley Aquifer (GMBVA). This study aims to mark areas with high contamination levels to take appropriate measures in ensuring the wellbeing of the community around. The location for GMBVA distributes in southwest Ohio, which is a groundwater that covers a total area about 2060 Km2. This Aquifer is formed in sedimentary rock deposited by glaciers that holds more than a trillion gallons of water. Therefore, the GMBVA is a valuable resource for 1.5 million people in southwest Ohio. The depth of groundwater table of the GMBVA system is less than 20 feet, which makes the GMBVA highly susceptible to contamination from the surface pollution.Generally, an aquifer or groundwater can be polluted by natural factors such as geological contamination contacting with salty water body surface as well as man-made contaminations. This study was focused on identifying and mapping different man-made contaminations that can infiltrated directly to GMBVA, including road salt, agriculture, residential area from land cover data, and the depth to groundwater.The study data contains roads, agriculture, residential area, wells, and aquifer boundaries. All these data are processed and analyzed to identify potential contamination areas. This study aims to categorize the areas into high, medium, and low depending on the overlying of the contamination factors. From the current analyzing result we found that contaminating factors lie on the surface of an Aquifer with a low depth value of wells are at high risk and wells at a high depth value are low risk. By far, we can distinguish areas of highly exposed, or less exposed or no exposed contamination on recharge areas.We would further examine the affected aquifers and take future action to prevent and or reduce further contamination of aquifers in the study area.
Meghan Elizabeth Leigh Ellis, Mark D. Franchak, Pengqing Sun
Based on the work and data gathered by Counterpart International, a development agency funded by USAID, this presentation examines efforts to increase community involvement in advocacy against gender-based violence in Bangladesh. This is part of a larger program Counterpart International has implemented since 2018, titled, ‘Promoting Advocacy and Rights’ (PAR) in collaboration with local NGOs. Anchored in the Gender/Women in Development (GID/WID) approach, PAR aims to deepen democratic values within civil society to improve public governance. The presentation will particularly focus on workshops Counterpart had organized to discuss the issue of gender-based violence against Bangladeshi women. Besides, these meetings are also used as an opportunity to train both the men and women on how to advocate against such violence. We are specifically interested in the tools and methods Counterpart uses to measure the success of these training sessions which incorporate both quantitative and qualitative indicators such as meeting attendance, participant feedback, and trainee testimonials etc. Drawing upon our analyses and based on the critical development studies framework, we raise a separate set of evaluative questions in relation to how Counterpart recognizes and acknowledges the unequal access to decision-making power and opportunities between Bangladeshi men and women, the effects of its work on the respective communities, and how Counterpart facilitates, or fails to facilitate, a shift toward equal control between men and women in Bangladesh’s society. Additionally, in incorporating Bangladesh’s historical background, we ask how does the country’s colonial past intersect with the current development work. Lastly, the presentation will provide recommendations on how Counterpart may successfully move forward in its efforts to empower Bangladeshi women.
Seaniece Denee Richardson
The purpose of this study was to see if COVID-19 has had any effects on minority students' academic performance at universities. The survey created was set up by students and distributed through three social media platforms (Instagram, Twitter, and LinkedIn). The responses from 299 students across the country were analyzed. This study arose from other research showing that COVID-19 has impacted our community and people financially, mentally, academically, etc. This project asks students about their graduation plans, classes, grades, courses, and remote vs in-person learning.
Ryan W. McEvily
In mid February 2020, the U.S. Equity market experienced a sharp decline in stock prices due to the Covid-19 pandemic. Near the end of March, the stock market had an initial rebound and has continued an upward trend throughout the remainder of 2020 and into 2021 as Covid-19 vaccines plus fiscal stimulus packages have given investors renewed hope the the economy and equity markets will continue to normalize.In this study, my objective is to analyze the returns during the initial decline and rebound period for a number of size/style investment indexes offered to investors by Willshire. Size is identified as large and small while style is identified as value and growth. The size/style investment indexes are also dimensionalised by market value weighting and price weighting. I test the following hypotheses: (1) Large cap indexes outperform small cap indexes on the downswing, while small cap indexes outperform large cap indexes in the upswing period. (2) Value outperforms growth in the downswing while growth outperforms value in the upswing. (3) Market value weighted indexes outperform price weighted indexes in the downswing and price weighted indexes outperform market weighted indexes in the upswing.
Julia Marie Muccio, Allison Connor Papesh, Anna Elizabeth Serey, Dominic Agostino Speights, Kaylie Hope VanDoren, Margaret Clare Walker
Our study aims to discover the effect of COVID-19 on the mental health of college freshmen and seniors at the University of Dayton. Through survey design, we explored mental health-related factors such as stress, academic performance, social well-being, anxiety, and overall well-being. We will explore how these factors have changed for students over the past year due to the COVID-19 pandemic and we expect to find different outcomes related to mental health across both groups. In order to combat the negative mental health consequences of COVID-19, higher education institutions must continue to focus on preserving the quality of life for their students during this unprecedented time.
Gianna Marie Panozzo
Covid-19 restrictions such as stay-at-home orders, closure of schools, and non-essential workplaces around the United States pose a threat to children’s social life, education, and psychological well-being. This study aims to explore the impact the pandemic’s restrictions had on students that attend High Point Elementary School in Orland Park, Illinois. An online survey was conducted using Qualtrics from February 17th to March 29th, 2021 among 20 parents that have children aged 8 to 11 years that attend this elementary school. The survey included two sets of questions labeled Pre-Covid-19 restriction questions and Post-Covid-19 restriction questions were set up on a bipolar matrix table. Participants were able to select where their child stands on two extremes of the scale which were labeled “not at all likely” and “extremely likely” on a 6-point Likert scale. To compare and distinguish the data collected, I combined the records from the first three numbers on the Likert scale closest to “not likely at all”, and did the same with the last three closest to “extremely likely”. Results revealed that after the restrictions were put into place, children interacting with their friends on a daily basis dropped 75%. Participants reported only 5% of children represented the three points closest to “extremely likely” when asked if their child struggled in the ability to learn pre-covid-19 restrictions. When remote learning was enforced, participants reported 65% of their children fell between the three points closets to “extremely likely” on this matter. Lastly, this study indicates children’s psychological well-being also dropped 69.47% after the restrictions. The data gathered reveal that parents believe that these children’s social life, education, and psychological well-being were negatively affected by restrictions imposed by the Covid-19 pandemic.
Michael F. Kane
In this study I look at the relationship between stock market volatility (measured by the VIX) and 5 S&P Sector ETF's over the early stages of the COVID-19 pandemic in the United States. The 5 SPDR sectors are Consumer Discretionary (XLY), Consumer Staples (XLP), Industrials (XLI), Healthcare (XLV), and Information Technology (XLK). I use uni-variate regression analysis to specify the linear relationship between the sector price indexes (Y) and VIX (X). Both a down swing (from mid February to late March) and an upswing (from late March to mid summer) periods are modeled. I test the following hypotheses: (1) There is an inverse relationship between sector price indexes and the VIX, (2) During the down swing period, the growth sectors XLY and XLK showed the sharpest declines in their price indexes and (3) during the upswing period the growth sectors, XLY and XLK showed the largest increases in their price indexes.
Rebecca J. Barton, Alyssa R. Legarreta, Matthew Lee Rowan, Cathryn Ann Vandenbosch
Creatine is a well studied and utilized supplement within the athletic population. It has been associated with increased strength and power outputs, improving overall athletic performance. Additionally, research has suggested cognitive benefits, specifically in enhancing memory. The purpose of this study is to gain an understanding of how students and athletes at the University of Dayton (UD) perceive creatine supplementation and its benefits. Participants will be recruited from the University of Dayton student population through email and messaging apps. This is a cross-sectional study, with goals to analyze prevalence of creatine use and attitudes. A survey will be sent to UD students discussing their perception of creatine, the cognitive benefits, and if they would be willing to take it under certain conditions. After analyzing the results, we aim to have a better understanding of creatine usage and associated attitudes in UD students.
Sama Wathiq Ahmed, Ana Teresa Aleman Belendez, Nicolette Marissa Bettuzzi, Tamara Lynn Devine Rinehart, Kathleen Theresa McCaslin, Joia Marie Mitchell-Holman, Allison C. O'Gorman, Jared K. Puckett, Isolyn M. Radford, Shaila C. Rajendran, Isabel Zavala
What can we all do to enhance the UD campus climate for diversity, equity and inclusion for all? Students, faculty, and staff in UDI 380 have been working together Spring semester to answer this question as they participated in a mini-course focusing on privilege and oppression, and attended the White Privilege Conference. The session will be spent in conversation with the audience about strategies to improve the campus climate at the University of Dayton. As we all play a role in the university community, we welcome conversation with everyone (from those new to conversations about social justice to the seasoned veterans!). Come join us!
Kaitlynne Elizabeth Chapman, Lydia Kimberley Kladitis, Sophie Jane Wilson
Through both moving image and still photography, the artists in Crux invite us places where we can glimpse subtle truths about human identity and experience. From the woods out back to a post-apocalyptic otherworld, and from childhood to adulthood and back again, these young artists create places where bodies, minds and everyday habits are examined and reformed. In Surrogates, Sophie Wilson explores gender-based conventions around fashion, ultimately proposing a world that offers greater freedom of expression. Kaitlynne Chapman rethinks and challenges the world of her childhood hero Sleeping Beauty, whose voice in the Disney flim was limited to only 18 Lines, the title of Chapman’s work. Lydia Kladitis’ short animated film Red/Blue tells the tale of siblings made enemies by differing ideologies. Her world sends these feuding characters to a Twilight Zone where they can confront truths at the core of the human condition. The projects in Crux are individual works produced over two challenging semesters during which we all, in a sense, have been living in a place akin to the fictional narrative spaces made popular by Rod Serling and, more recently, Jordan Peele. Through their unique artistic visions, wrought separately but brought together here, we are asked to think more creatively about how we approach our lives as both individuals and members of a complicated, but ultimately connected, society.Crux will be on exhibit at Front Street Art Studios and Galleries (https://frontstreet.art/) in Studio Glenna on floor 3 during First Friday, May 7, 2021 from 5-10pm. Social distance protocol will be in place, and the event is free and open to the public.
Megan E. Frillici, Colin L. Lamb, Nicholas James Patritti, Ian Rasaan Robinson
Research (e.g., ten Brinke et al., 2014) indicates that type of questions asked of observers will determine degree of accuracy in deception detection (DD). The present research examined the advantage of virtual reality (VR) in DD using both direct (e.g., Is the person lying?) and indirect (e.g., Does the person appear nervous?) questions of participants. Indirect questionnaires included probes assessing biases that observers might see as common deceiver characteristics (e.g., failure to make eye contact). The usefulness of these type of questions in DD is believed to interact with the use of VR. The first of three hypotheses for this research is that indirect questioning would produce strong DD due to questions such as those influenced by bias towards certain professions, and decisions to work with a person on a project and character traits such as body language and facial expressions. The second hypothesis is that a subset of indirect questions designed to detect bias about dishonest behavior would produce greater accuracy in DD than those related to facial and body indicators. The third hypothesis is that VR would enhance observations of nonverbal facial-emotional and body language characteristics. Participants wearing VR headsets watched brief videos, each featuring an actor depicting a student who had participated in a game. The actors were each interrogated about having cheated, and either lied or not. After each video, participants completed a direct or indirect set of questions about the honesty of the actor, as well as questions designed to obtain details about their responses on the initial questionnaire. Data collection is continuing; however, preliminary analysis of the type of questionnaire and correct DD indicated that DD is greater when responding to indirect questions. Further, specific focus questions indicate that facial-emotional and body language cues are enhanced by the use of VR.
Martin Barry McKew
Throughout time, national histories have utilized ancient figures as political tools, especially to strengthen their military and popular standings on the world stage. Three heroes, Boudicca from the UK, Vercingetorix from France, and Arminius from Germany, were all used in this manner. There are distinct parallels between them that speak to the efficacy of this practice in nationalism and nation-making.