More than 700 students submitted over 300 individual and team research projects to present at the annual Stander Symposium on April 22, 2021. Students chose to share their research in a variety of ways: downloadable posters and papers; live presentations on Zoom; recorded presentations; and safe-distance live presentations from front porches and other locations on campus. Browse the gallery below or search for specific research projects using the search function at the top left of the screen.
This gallery contains projects from the 2021 Stander Symposium by students, faculty and staff in the College of Arts and Sciences.
Carry On? Sheriff Perceptions of Concealed Carry in Ohio
Members of license-issuing agencies have been largely overlooked in concealed carry weapons (CCW) research but stand to provide a critical viewpoint from firsthand experience with the guidelines and procedures in place. This exploratory study examined the perceived level of adequacy, stringency, and implications of the current CCW licensure process in Ohio. A 43 item online survey was distributed via email to all county sheriffs in the state of Ohio, yielding a total of 26 respondents. The data indicate satisfaction with the current process and requirements necessary to obtain an Ohio CCW license. Data indicate a perceived need for CCW licenses in the state. Sheriffs report the current number of licenses improves their personal and public safety; however, they did not believe these impact the number of law enforcement officers shot and or killed on duty annually. Sheriffs feel their departments are the appropriate agency to handle CCW licensing, spending more than 20 hours attending to the process per week. Results show most sheriffs do not think Ohio should become a constitutional carry state. More research is necessary to determine if these views are consistent amongst license-issuing agents in other shall-issue states.
Challenging Genetic Dogma: Testing Whether Modularity is a General Feature of the Switches that Control Animal Gene Use
Katherine A. Kohnen
Animals build, organize, and maintain a diversity of cell types throughout development and adulthood. Cellular diversity results from the regulated expression of genes, where most genes are “pleiotropic” with expression occurring in several cell types and/or developmental stages. Cell type and developmental stage-specific patterns of expression are activated by cis-regulatory element (CRE) DNA sequences. In contrast to genes, CREs are generally assumed to function in a modular non-pleiotropic manner. Where each CRE activates expression in one cellular context, and gene pleiotropy arises from their regulation by multiple modular CREs. This assumption shapes the way CREs are thought to impact development, evolution, and genetic disease. However, the generality of CRE modularity has not been satisfactorily demonstrated, as it is difficult to test for CRE activity or inactivity in all cell types and developmental stages. The major goal of my Honor Thesis research is to test whether CREs tend to be modular or possess pleiotropic gene expression regulating activities. For any identified pleiotropic CRE, I will reveal how their multiple expression activities are encoded in DNA sequence. Specifically, I will investigate 13 Drosophila melanogaster CREs that each activate gene expression in the abdomen of this fruit fly species by reporter transgene assays. For these CREs, I will inspect for additional reporter transgene expressions in embryonic, larval, pupal, and adult cell types. For any identified pleiotropic CRE, I will subject it to a series of discrete mutations to see whether zero, one, or multiple expression activities are disrupted by the introduced mutations. These experiments will provide a novel test of the modularity hypothesis and provide insights into how expression patterns are encoded in CREs. The outcomes have broad implications in biology, notably on the roles of CREs in development, evolution, and genetic disease.
Check Your Ego at the Shore: Marine-Derived Nutrients Drive Size Variation in the Invasive Tawny Crazy Ant
Amy C. Feltz
Nylanderia fulva, known as the Tawny Crazy Ant, is a highly destructive invasive ant that arrived from South America to the Southeast U.S. in 2002. In their invasive range, this ant can reach a density 100 times greater than native ants and their nests contain multiple queens and workers that show no signs of intraspecific aggression, allowing the colonies to stretch thousands of kilometers along the Texas coastline. Nylanderia fulva are important to study in coastal tallgrass prairies because these ants threaten biodiversity in this imperiled ecosystem, and their abundance is driven by marine-derived nutrients, such as calcium and sodium, that are deposited by precipitation along the coast. The main question in this experiment is: how do changes in micronutrient availability in coastal tallgrass prairies affect Nylanderia fulva fitness? More specifically, we were seeking to determine: does the total amount and ratio of Ca to Na in the diet of N. fulva affect worker size? We hypothesized that the amount of Ca in N. fulva food will increase ant size while increasing Na in the food will decrease ant size. To determine how the ratio of Ca:Na affects worker size, we collected 80 colonies of N. fulva and conducted 50-day feeding trials with 16 different diets that varied the amount of Ca and Na in their food (by increasing 10%, 25%, and 50%) in 2018. At the end of the experiment, we measured the head width of 10 ants from each colony to determine worker size in each diet variation. Ca increased colony biomass while Na decreased worker size. Our findings suggest that N. fulva seeks Ca to increase colony growth, which may be an important mechanism driving colony success. Additionally, because Na decreased N. fulva worker size, increases in Na could lead to a reduction in competition among native ant species and decrease their ability to forage for food.
Childhood Victimization and Mental Health
James David Burns, Shawn A. Gaspar
Children are one of the most vulnerable populations we have in our society in terms of victimization. This vulnerability, unfortunately, makes them an easier target for victimization and this, in turn, can have damaging effects on a child's mental health. Children suffer the highest rates of crime victimization. This research examines the impact of childhood victimization on mental health by race and gender.
Child Marriage and the Effects of COVID-19 in Bangladesh
Fabiola A. Hernandez Vargas, Maya A. Smith-Custer, Meaghan Elizabeth Thomas
Based on the work and data gathered by Counterpart International, a development agency funded by USAID, this presentation focuses on how the COVID-19 pandemic has exacerbated the already existing issue of child marriage in Bangladesh. This is part of a larger program Counterpart International has implemented since 2018, titled, ‘Promoting Advocacy and Rights’ (PAR). PAR gains to deepen democratic values within civil society to improve public governance in collaboration with others NGOs. In this project titled, ‘Child Marriage and the Effects of COVID-19 in Bangladesh’, analyzes how gender disparities impact the decisions made for young girls. Childhood marriage has been illegal in Bangladesh since the passing of the Childhood Marriage Restraint Act in 1929 under British rule. Later, in response to the widespread continuation of this practice, the government enacted the Childhood Marriage Act of 2017, making the practice legal with certain provisions, such as authorizing girls under the age of eighteen to get married with permission of a guardian. The gender disparities in Bangladesh lead to childhood marriages and the COVID-19 pandemic has contributed to an increase of childhood marriages. The COVID-19 pandemic has exacerbated the push factors toward childhood marriage. Childhood marriage can be the result of lack of access to resources, education and financial hardship. Understandably, childhood marriage can be considered a social solution to these hardships for struggling families, specifically in rural areas. However, women in these marriages are more likely to experience domestic violence and physical and mental hardships. They also lose their mobility, financial independence, and become full time homemakers. In this presentation we highlight these underlying structural causes and effects and propose some solutions based on our semester work on delving deeper into issues that specifically impact Bangladesh as a country.
Chronic Administration of the Novel SERCA2 Activator CDN1163 Induces Behavioral and Neurochemical Effects in Mice.
Intracellular calcium homeostasis is essential for neuronal function and survival, with the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) being a major internal calcium reservoir. Our group focuses on the sarco/endoplasmic reticulum (SR/ER) calcium (Ca2+)-ATPase (SERCA) pump that is a pivotal regulator of cytosolic calcium levels. Compelling evidence indicates that these P-type ATPases play a critical role in brain pathophysiology. Hence, SERCA pumps comprise an emerging pharmacological target for debilitating brain diseases. Interestingly, studies suggest that a novel SERCA activator, namely CDN1163, may rescue motor and cognitive dysfunction in rodent models of Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s diseases. As little is known about the behavioral and neurochemical consequences of CDN1163 administration, in the context of this study, we are presenting the effects of acute and chronic CDN1163 administration on locomotor activity and relevant affective behaviors, as well as on monoaminergic neurotransmission in naïve C57BL/6J mice of both sexes.
Climate Change Through the Lenses of Diferent Religions
Liliana G. Alton, Caleb Joshua Cecil, John Patrick Sheehan, Erica Kristy Wojcikiewicz
Climate change is a growing concern for many as weather extremities begin to become commonplace across the globe. Human action is the main cause of this, and we intend to explore how people think about climate change in relation to their religious beliefs, along with how official religious dogmas talk about the nature of climate change. Using research from a variety of social science studies, we examined how different geographic regions and demographics have reacted to climate change in relation to their religious influences. We looked at a range of religious practices from around the world and how these groups have responded to climate change. The influence of both cultural and personal religion does impact the relevance and sense of responsibility that people feel towards climate change.
Close Look into Top Medical Causes of Death: 2014 – 2020
Alexa Marie Roberts
In this presentation, we will be working with the top causes of death related to medical conditions tracked by the CDC. I examine this data throughout the years separated by season to find trends that may repeat annually. Additionally, I break it down by state and region to find more patterns that are dependent on location. I also take population into account and normalize my data to better compare the impact of each disease with a caveat comparison to trends seen in COVID-19.
College Alcohol use During Covid-19
Allison G. Gerberick
This presentation will outline the findings from a qualitative online study looking at the ways that the Covid-19 pandemic influenced alcohol use among college students. This analysis will examine alcohol use during the pandemic by undergraduate students, above the age of 18, coming from various universities predominantly located in Ohio and surrounding states. Students were recruited through several social media platforms to participate in the survey. The findings of the survey revealed statistically significant differences in consumption between men and women. Specifically, it found that men often consumed more alcohol during the pandemic while women were more likely to consume less. The main aim of this presentation is to provide further information about the pandemic’s influence on alcohol in order to encourage safe consumption.
College Student's Perceptions of Militarized Police Deployed to Protests
William John Thompson
Police militarization has been a popular topic within the media for the past several years. In reality, however, police militarization has existed since the early 20th century Prohibition era. College students appear to be a marginalized group when it comes to studying police militarization. This study aims to address the issue of police militarization by examining the perceptions of college students using an online survey design deployed on different social media platforms. The sample consisted of 299 college students who were mainly females and Caucasian. Bivariate correlations were conducted to examine the relationship between police militarization and perceptions of the police. Findings indicate that students' support for militarization in response to protests was positively correlated with positive views of the police. A crosstabulation test was also run to determine the relationship between several question concerning college student's perceptions of militarized police deployed to protests and several factors. Implications of the study will be discussed.
College Student's Perceptions of Police Through Social Media
Owen O. Freeman
The study explored the relationship between viewing social media videos of police misconduct and their perceptions of the police. The study used an online survey deployed across several social media platforms. The sample consisted of 299 undergraduates who were mainly females and Caucasian. Bivariate correlations were conducted to assess the relationship between viewing videos of police misconduct and perceptions of the police. The findings indicate that viewing videos of police misconduct may not influence the current perceptions of police among a sample of college students. The findings and implications will be discussed.
Combining in silico and in vivo approaches to reveal the evo-devo of a fruit fly trait
Matthew Dennis Spangler, Michael Weinstein
The DNA sequences of genomes encode the recipes for making functional cellular products, notably proteins, and switches that regulate when these products are made. While the genetic code for proteins has been known for decades, a similar code for the regulative switches is lacking. This presents a major challenge to understanding the genetic basis of life, as these switches (called cis-regulatory elements or CREs) may outnumber protein-coding genes by 20-50 fold. Both in vivo and in silico approaches exist to study CREs, but the former approaches are generally low throughput and not up to the scale of vast genomes, and the latter lack validation of predictions. We are merging in silico and in vivo approaches to identify the CREs controlling genes responsible for a fruit fly pigmentation trait. Here, we are leveraging the knowledge of six CREs that switch on the transcription of five different genes from a fruit fly tergite pigmentation gene regulatory network (GRN) as well as 10 predicted CREs identified through bioinformatic means. We are using the SCRMshaw bioinformatic tool to identify novel predicted CREs controlling genes within this GRN based on underlying similarities in the DNA sequences of the known CREs. From this novel list, we tested 44 for CRE activity in in vivo reporter transgene assays. Novel validated CREs will be compared with the known six to reveal what the molecular functions are for the common DNA motifs as the next stage of this research project. The encoding of information in CREs is a universal feature of life, so these results bear upon life at every level, including the betterment of the human condition
Community Conversations in Dayton, Ohio: A New Model for Civic Engagement
Kathleen E. Schweninger
Previous research indicates that civic engagement is declining in the United States. This decline has contributed to many of the systemic challenges Americans face today. However, diverse models of civic engagement are emerging which cultivate positive change for communities and individuals. One such model is the Community Conversations series designed by Re-Imagining America: Dayton, Ohio (RIA Dayton). RIA Dayton is reevaluating how community success and satisfaction are measured by creating new metrics of wellbeing through a series of Community Conversations with Dayton residents. This study uses a combination of survey and interview data to understand Community Conversations participants’ perceptions and practices of civic engagement. Results showed that Community Conversation participants frequently engage in both low and high-level civic engagement activities, with the latter resulting in more positive outcomes. Based on survey and interview responses, participants reported positive outcomes such as having the opportunity to engage in meaningful conversation and to develop shared goals.
Comparing Social Bonds and Academic Performance of Adjudicated Adolescents Residing in a Facility v.s. Community
Nick A. Trageser
This study examined the link between social bonds and academic performance among adjudicated juveniles residing in the community versus a residential facility. Self-reported grades and variables used in the study were pulled from the Pathways to Desistance data (N = 1,354), a longitudinal study conducted with juveniles from Pennsylvania and Arizona. The data set consists of juveniles between to ages of 14 to 18, asked to rate their grades, bonding to teachers, and school orientation while residing in the community or a correctional facility. A bivariate correlation was conducted to examine the relationship between social bonds and academic performance. Findings indicate a weak to a moderately significant relationship between school bonding and grades. However, juveniles in the community had a stronger significant association between social bonds and grades. Findings and implications will be discussed.
Contamination Potential of Great Miami Buried Valley Aquifer (GMBVA)
Tesfalem Gebretsadik Mehari
This study is about identifying the potential contaminants for the Great Miami Buried Valley Aquifer (GMBVA). This study aims to mark areas with high contamination levels to take appropriate measures in ensuring the wellbeing of the community around. The location for GMBVA distributes in southwest Ohio, which is a groundwater that covers a total area about 2060 Km2. This Aquifer is formed in sedimentary rock deposited by glaciers that holds more than a trillion gallons of water. Therefore, the GMBVA is a valuable resource for 1.5 million people in southwest Ohio. The depth of groundwater table of the GMBVA system is less than 20 feet, which makes the GMBVA highly susceptible to contamination from the surface pollution.Generally, an aquifer or groundwater can be polluted by natural factors such as geological contamination contacting with salty water body surface as well as man-made contaminations. This study was focused on identifying and mapping different man-made contaminations that can infiltrated directly to GMBVA, including road salt, agriculture, residential area from land cover data, and the depth to groundwater.The study data contains roads, agriculture, residential area, wells, and aquifer boundaries. All these data are processed and analyzed to identify potential contamination areas. This study aims to categorize the areas into high, medium, and low depending on the overlying of the contamination factors. From the current analyzing result we found that contaminating factors lie on the surface of an Aquifer with a low depth value of wells are at high risk and wells at a high depth value are low risk. By far, we can distinguish areas of highly exposed, or less exposed or no exposed contamination on recharge areas.We would further examine the affected aquifers and take future action to prevent and or reduce further contamination of aquifers in the study area.
Counterpart International and Community Advocacy Against Gender-Based Violence in Bangladesh
Meghan Elizabeth Leigh Ellis, Mark D. Franchak, Pengqing Sun
Based on the work and data gathered by Counterpart International, a development agency funded by USAID, this presentation examines efforts to increase community involvement in advocacy against gender-based violence in Bangladesh. This is part of a larger program Counterpart International has implemented since 2018, titled, ‘Promoting Advocacy and Rights’ (PAR) in collaboration with local NGOs. Anchored in the Gender/Women in Development (GID/WID) approach, PAR aims to deepen democratic values within civil society to improve public governance. The presentation will particularly focus on workshops Counterpart had organized to discuss the issue of gender-based violence against Bangladeshi women. Besides, these meetings are also used as an opportunity to train both the men and women on how to advocate against such violence. We are specifically interested in the tools and methods Counterpart uses to measure the success of these training sessions which incorporate both quantitative and qualitative indicators such as meeting attendance, participant feedback, and trainee testimonials etc. Drawing upon our analyses and based on the critical development studies framework, we raise a separate set of evaluative questions in relation to how Counterpart recognizes and acknowledges the unequal access to decision-making power and opportunities between Bangladeshi men and women, the effects of its work on the respective communities, and how Counterpart facilitates, or fails to facilitate, a shift toward equal control between men and women in Bangladesh’s society. Additionally, in incorporating Bangladesh’s historical background, we ask how does the country’s colonial past intersect with the current development work. Lastly, the presentation will provide recommendations on how Counterpart may successfully move forward in its efforts to empower Bangladeshi women.
COVID-19 and its effect on academic performances of minority students at universities
Seaniece Denee Richardson
The purpose of this study was to see if COVID-19 has had any effects on minority students' academic performance at universities. The survey created was set up by students and distributed through three social media platforms (Instagram, Twitter, and LinkedIn). The responses from 299 students across the country were analyzed. This study arose from other research showing that COVID-19 has impacted our community and people financially, mentally, academically, etc. This project asks students about their graduation plans, classes, grades, courses, and remote vs in-person learning.
Covid 19 Restrictions and Children’s Social, Educational and Psychological Well-Being
Gianna Marie Panozzo
Covid-19 restrictions such as stay-at-home orders, closure of schools, and non-essential workplaces around the United States pose a threat to children’s social life, education, and psychological well-being. This study aims to explore the impact the pandemic’s restrictions had on students that attend High Point Elementary School in Orland Park, Illinois. An online survey was conducted using Qualtrics from February 17th to March 29th, 2021 among 20 parents that have children aged 8 to 11 years that attend this elementary school. The survey included two sets of questions labeled Pre-Covid-19 restriction questions and Post-Covid-19 restriction questions were set up on a bipolar matrix table. Participants were able to select where their child stands on two extremes of the scale which were labeled “not at all likely” and “extremely likely” on a 6-point Likert scale. To compare and distinguish the data collected, I combined the records from the first three numbers on the Likert scale closest to “not likely at all”, and did the same with the last three closest to “extremely likely”. Results revealed that after the restrictions were put into place, children interacting with their friends on a daily basis dropped 75%. Participants reported only 5% of children represented the three points closest to “extremely likely” when asked if their child struggled in the ability to learn pre-covid-19 restrictions. When remote learning was enforced, participants reported 65% of their children fell between the three points closets to “extremely likely” on this matter. Lastly, this study indicates children’s psychological well-being also dropped 69.47% after the restrictions. The data gathered reveal that parents believe that these children’s social life, education, and psychological well-being were negatively affected by restrictions imposed by the Covid-19 pandemic.
Crux: Senior Capstone Photography Projects
Kaitlynne Elizabeth Chapman, Lydia Kimberley Kladitis, Sophie Jane Wilson
Through both moving image and still photography, the artists in Crux invite us places where we can glimpse subtle truths about human identity and experience. From the woods out back to a post-apocalyptic otherworld, and from childhood to adulthood and back again, these young artists create places where bodies, minds and everyday habits are examined and reformed. In Surrogates, Sophie Wilson explores gender-based conventions around fashion, ultimately proposing a world that offers greater freedom of expression. Kaitlynne Chapman rethinks and challenges the world of her childhood hero Sleeping Beauty, whose voice in the Disney flim was limited to only 18 Lines, the title of Chapman’s work. Lydia Kladitis’ short animated film Red/Blue tells the tale of siblings made enemies by differing ideologies. Her world sends these feuding characters to a Twilight Zone where they can confront truths at the core of the human condition. The projects in Crux are individual works produced over two challenging semesters during which we all, in a sense, have been living in a place akin to the fictional narrative spaces made popular by Rod Serling and, more recently, Jordan Peele. Through their unique artistic visions, wrought separately but brought together here, we are asked to think more creatively about how we approach our lives as both individuals and members of a complicated, but ultimately connected, society.Crux will be on exhibit at Front Street Art Studios and Galleries (https://frontstreet.art/) in Studio Glenna on floor 3 during First Friday, May 7, 2021 from 5-10pm. Social distance protocol will be in place, and the event is free and open to the public.
Cue-Focused Questions Increase Accuracy of Detecting Deception within a Virtual Reality Space
Megan E. Frillici, Colin L. Lamb, Nicholas James Patritti, Ian Rasaan Robinson
Research (e.g., ten Brinke et al., 2014) indicates that type of questions asked of observers will determine degree of accuracy in deception detection (DD). The present research examined the advantage of virtual reality (VR) in DD using both direct (e.g., Is the person lying?) and indirect (e.g., Does the person appear nervous?) questions of participants. Indirect questionnaires included probes assessing biases that observers might see as common deceiver characteristics (e.g., failure to make eye contact). The usefulness of these type of questions in DD is believed to interact with the use of VR. The first of three hypotheses for this research is that indirect questioning would produce strong DD due to questions such as those influenced by bias towards certain professions, and decisions to work with a person on a project and character traits such as body language and facial expressions. The second hypothesis is that a subset of indirect questions designed to detect bias about dishonest behavior would produce greater accuracy in DD than those related to facial and body indicators. The third hypothesis is that VR would enhance observations of nonverbal facial-emotional and body language characteristics. Participants wearing VR headsets watched brief videos, each featuring an actor depicting a student who had participated in a game. The actors were each interrogated about having cheated, and either lied or not. After each video, participants completed a direct or indirect set of questions about the honesty of the actor, as well as questions designed to obtain details about their responses on the initial questionnaire. Data collection is continuing; however, preliminary analysis of the type of questionnaire and correct DD indicated that DD is greater when responding to indirect questions. Further, specific focus questions indicate that facial-emotional and body language cues are enhanced by the use of VR.
Cultural Heroes in Parallel; Vercingetorix, Boudica and Arminius
Martin Barry McKew
Throughout time, national histories have utilized ancient figures as political tools, especially to strengthen their military and popular standings on the world stage. Three heroes, Boudicca from the UK, Vercingetorix from France, and Arminius from Germany, were all used in this manner. There are distinct parallels between them that speak to the efficacy of this practice in nationalism and nation-making.
Damn Hard! The Truth of Parenting a Child with Autism
Jessica N. Carter
According to the CDC about 1 in 6 children were diagnosed with developmental disability in the years of 2009-2017 and 1 in 54 of the children were diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder. This is the backdrop of my research on the Truth about Parenting a Child with Autism. This survey research reached out to parents who are involved in a play project, as well as parents associated with a school for autistic children and those reached through a Facebook group. I found from the survey that many parents tend to feel a sense of worry for their child as well as judgement from other parents. Some parents emphasized things like Autistic kids want friends too. One parent summed it up: “It’s hard. Damn Hard!” In conclusion I found that parenting for autistic children is very difficult, but also very worth it. A major finding was that resources are needed for the parents in addition to the resources for the children.
Data Analysis on Classifying the Severity of Genetic Mutations
Kelly Laureen Pleiman
Cancer tumors can have thousands of mutations but determining which of those mutations actually contribute to tumor growth is critical in understanding the disease. Through the use of productive models in machine learning, this capstone project focuses on determining the severity of different genetic mutations using available data from Kaggle on the mutation’s gene, variation, and clinical text evidence. By performing data analysis and applying different models on this complex data set, the class or severity of genetic mutations on a scale from 1-9 can be predicted. Decision tree, random forest, SVD, logistic regression, and K nearest neighbor are among the models that were used to classify genetic variation. Obtaining higher model accuracies allows for better classification of genetic mutations and could eventually expedite the time pathologists spend manually classifying mutations.
Dayton Civic Scholars 2021 Cohort Capstone Project
Adam Gregory Kaye, Kate Gerling, Nick K Williams, Seaniece Denee Richardson, Erin Marie Cavrak, Kelly Elizabeth Howard, Sarah N Kuhns, Kathleen E Schweninger, Jacqueline J Chmiel, John Frederick Schaller, Erin Elizabeth DeCero John Currie Dickson, Mauricio Hernandez, Widad Mukhar
The mission of the Fitz’s Center’s Dayton Civic Scholars Program is focused on "shaping a Social Science Excellence identity within the social science programs by creating an intentional pathway from the classroom to community leadership and public service.” The 2021 Cohort focused their time over the last three years on building community relationships which has served as the foundation for their capstone project partnering with Dayton Public Schools. The intent of the project is to develop an after school curriculum to be implemented at a Dayton area elementary school. The curriculum has four focus areas to enrich student learning: Social Emotional Learning, Financial Literacy, Civic Engagement, and Health & Wellness. Each of these topics consist of 3-4 activities which builds students' knowledge of the subject area and allows for collaboration between students. It is our hope that this project will create a lasting impact on students living and learning in the Dayton community.
Decriminalization of Marijuana and how it impacts incarceration rates
Alexander J. Roberts
My research project looks at the decriminalization of marijuana and how it impacts incarceration rates. My belief is that the incarceration rates will decrease due to the decriminalization of marijuana and less people being incarcerated for marijuana offenses. I have chosen to look at ten different states where the policy has gone into effect and those states are California, Connecticut, Delaware, Illinois, Maryland, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, North Dakota, Rhode Island, and Vermont. Although I believe that the decriminalization of marijuana plays a major role in the decrease of incarceration rates, I cannot say that this is the main reason.