Lila Acott, Natalia Llanos, Austin Riddle, Jaimey A. Todde
Human trafficking has been a major issue in the United States and continues to be a major issue today. Ohio is within the top ten states in the U.S with the highest rates of human trafficking and since the start of the Covid-19 pandemic the rates of human trafficking within the state has continued to rise. With our presentation we hope to educate and raise awareness about how human trafficking happens such as the basic facts and what warning signs to look out for. We hope to help mitigate future cases of human trafficking by promoting better situational awareness and providing resources for suspected human trafficking. Our main goal is to educate young adults, students, families and anyone else who could possibly be affected by human trafficking in order to help protect the community from this rising issue.
Hailey Elizabeth Wypasek
Bacterial strains of infectious diseases are continuously evolving resistance to current day antibiotics. Thousands of lives are lost yearly due to these drug-resistant bacteria. The discovery of new antibiotics capable of killing these bacteria is crucial to saving modern medicine. To further this search, I collected a soil sample from my own backyard to discover a new bacteria with antimicrobial activity. To identify the bacteria I collected, I performed a series of microbiology research techniques, including serial dilution and plating. The isolate I chose grows on R2A media and presented antimicrobial activity against B. subtilis, the safe relative of an ESKAPE pathogen. I further performed gram-staining, gel electrophoresis, and a variety of biochemical tests on the bacteria. The bacteria is gram-negative, catalase positive, non-lactose fermenting, and gelatinase producing. It can be characterized as circular, flat, dull, nonpigmented, and opaque. I will continue performing more tests on my isolate in order to effectively analyze it. I seek to identify my bacteria and extract its active antimicrobial components in hopes of discovering a possible new antibiotic.
Identifying the effects of anaerobic exposure on Listeria monocytogenes infection of the central nervous system
Rebecca Marie Rudd
The foodborne pathogen Listeria monocytogenes is capable of crossing the gastrointestinal epithelium and invading macrophages and non-phagocytic cells. As an intracellular pathogen, L. monocytogenes replicates inside the host cell cytosol to be transported throughout the bloodstream and avoid any extracellular immune defenses. In this mechanism, the bacteria can reach and cross the blood brain barrier, resulting in bacterial meningitis that can be severe in immunocompromised patients. In this project, the goal of the research is to determine how anaerobic exposure, a typical process during the intestinal phase of infection, affects L. monocytogenes invasion of the central nervous system. Neuro-2A cells, acting as the model host cell for neuronal cells, are grown and infected with L. monocytogenes pre-exposed to anaerobic or aerobic conditions for different lengths of time. The 10403s strain, a neurotropic strain, and a cardiotropic strain are used to identify strain-dependent variations. Intracellular growth is measured to determine whether bacteria anaerobic adaptations alter the infection outcome. From these results, we will identify intestinal conditions that can potentially influence L. monocytogenes neural invasion to better understand this particular pathogenic process.
Abigail Stover and Sierra Johnson
Sierra Johnson, Abigail Stover
The experience of historically underserved and excluded identities in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math (STEM) undergraduate majors lacks research despite an increased effort to diversify the workforce. A lack of women-identifying individuals, people of color, and intersecting identities impacts the sense of belonging and trajectory of individuals in STEM fields. The current case study seeks to understand the experience of historically excluded and historically underserved students who are currently majoring in or who previously majored in STEM fields at a private Midwestern university. An anonymous Qualtrics survey of 371 participants of both current and former STEM students found patterns in desires for additional academic and community based support, mental health challenges, and the impact of one’s identities on their STEM experience. Similarly, 62 focus group participants reaffirmed barriers both in the classroom and outside of the classroom to student success, difficulties caring for one’s well-being, and a tense racial climate. The study addresses policy implications for the University as well as recommendations for supporting both current STEM students and former STEM students. These policy implications and recommendations come from both the students and the researchers, after analyzing the data.
This research aims to identify the harmony between human emotions (through facial expressions) and annotated emotions (the emotion associated with the image). This work can benefit different applications such as child development, rehabilitation centers, and others. In this work, we mainly focus on the data collection and annotation. We first collect a dataset of natural scenes based on the keywords and the compilation of existing datasets. We then integrate the facial expression recognition component, to capture the user's expression during the data annotation. Then, we evaluate the harmony between the annotated emotions vs. the recorded human expressions.
"I May Not Know Where I am Going, But I Know Where I've Been": A Personal Narrative and Celebratory Journey of Life's Everchanging Uncertainties Through the Essentiality of Art
Mercedes Mercedes Franklin
I see my identity as an artist as something instinctually interconnected to my personal life and to my existence as a whole; As such, the art that I produce is always, and has always been, a product of whatever I am experiencing in my life, serving as a sort of visual memoir that reflects whatever moment I may be in, in whatever form that ends up needing to take. Taking this into consideration, it would be impossible for me to explain my academic and artistic journey without a timeline of my personal life running parallel and I hope to share my journey through academics and invite you into my art practice through the framework of questions I ask myself when it comes to piecing my story together: “ Where Have You Been?”, “Where Are You Now?”, and “Where Are You Going?”. These questions have framed the backbone for how I’ve developed the structure of my narrative, and in turn, my art, into one consolidated cohesive thought and was also the idea behind some of my most recent work which I presented for our senior art show. These questions continue to be a vital instrument as I continue to work through understanding my time in college and what these past seven years have meant for me as an artist and how they have built me up through the act of tearing me down. I hope to share my journey and my life because it’s something that's become an essential for me, personally, as a way to understand, cope, learn, and grow from the unexpectancies of life and the challenges you can grow from through the practice of art. My goal is to inspire others because art has truly been all I've had to get through everything and it's something that has saved my life.
Ekua Asuon Bransah
For my poster, I will focus on immigration and how artists have used their craft to reflect immigration realities. This will center mainly on the U.S. immigration process and investigate the social and political complications that come with it. The goal is to show an authentic story of immigrants and explore how artists have called out America's fault in handling immigrant populations. I will draw from binational artists like Tanya Aguiniga and her video “Borderlands," to get a personal artist's perspective. My poster will also feature Tom Keifer's art and how he started his collection of items confiscated from immigrants that had been thrown away. Lastly, my poster will feature artist Cintia Segovia and some of her pieces relevant to the immigrant experience.
Implementation Factors of the Social Emotional Learning Language Arts (SELLA) Curriculum: Impact on Teachers’ Social-Emotional Competence
Maddie Ann Gronotte
In recent years, evidence supporting a whole-child approach to education—one that considers not only academic proficiency but also development of social-emotional competence (SEC) as important outcomes of education for students—has mounted. As the benefits of supporting student SEL skills have become more widely known, recognition of the value of supporting teachers’ SEC has surfaced, too. Research indicates a range of positive classroom implications for teachers’ having high SEC, including more effective management of student behaviors and higher quality implementation of evidence-based practices. Existing research demonstrates that schools can support teachers’ SEC directly through SEL-focused professional development opportunities, but it is unclear if teachers’ delivery of student-centered SEL programming indirectly results in similar improvements in SEC. Using a program evaluation with a comparison group design, the present study examined the impact of classroom delivery of the Social Emotional Learning Language Arts curriculum on teachers’ SEC and whether factors such as implementation quality and perceptions of the curriculum predicted SEC levels. Results of a survey of (n = 64) K-6 teachers revealed no significant relationship between SELLA implementation and self-reported SEC level, and neither perceptions of the curriculum nor implementation quality significantly predicted teacher SEC. Nonetheless, the findings of this study contribute to an emerging research base exploring practical, effective, and efficient ways that schools can support teacher SEC. Implications for practice and suggestions for future research are discussed.
Background: Recent studies have reported increased rates of mood and anxiety disorders in COVID-19 patients after acute illness, possibly resulting from inflammation, which is linked to depression and childhood trauma. Increased rates of anxiety and depression have also been observed at the population level following past viral outbreaks (e.g. SARS-CoV-1, MERS) and pandemic associated stress could also impact mental health. Thus, the present study compared depression, anxiety, and perceived stress scores in university students who tested positive for COVID-19 to those who never contracted the disease, and to scores prior to the pandemic. Methods: University students completed self-report measures of depression, anxiety, and perceived stress before (N=150) and during (N=334) the COVID-19 pandemic. The pandemic sample also completed measures of COVID-19 positivity, symptoms, and recovery. One third of the sample tested positive for COVID-19 (N=109). Three x (pre-pandemic, COVID-19 positive, COVID-19 negative) x two (male, female) ANOVAs examined differences in depression, anxiety, and perceived stress. A two (COVID-19 positive, COVID-19 negative) x two (male, female) ANOVA compared PTSD severity.Results: There were significant group effects for depression (F(1,477)=3.06, p=.048, partial η2=.013), anxiety (F(1,477)=3.03, p=.049, partial η2=.013), and perceived stress (F(1,376)=5.62, p=.004, partial η2=.029). Post-hoc analyses indicated that depression and anxiety were higher in the COVID-19 positive (all p’s .584). In contrast, perceived stress was higher in the pre-pandemic group compared to those who were COVID-19 positive (p=.033) and negative (p=.011). PTSD severity did not differ between the COVID-19 positive and negative groups (p=.645). Females were more depressed (p=.036), anxious (p<.001) and stressed (p=.006) than males but did not differ in PTSD severity (p=.305). Discussion: These results suggest that rates of depression and anxiety have increased during the pandemic regardless of COVID-19 positivity. Reduced stress during the pandemic may reflect reduced extracurricular commitments due to university activity restrictions. Future research should examine if these results generalize beyond university students.
Tanner Wayne Seidler
Inmate mental health is often overlooked; however, the rights and mental well-being of any individual under the government's custody are crucial to understanding the current state of our correctional system. Within this secondary data analysis of a national sample of inmates, the research question at hand is: Does the type of job assignment during incarceration impact an inmate's overall mental well-being? In an attempt to better understand the question, a multivariate linear regression test was conducted to compare individual work assignments such as farming and janitorial duties with different types of feelings such as depression and anxiety. The results found that, in some instances, work assignments do play a role in the overall well-being of the inmate. This information could be used to develop prison work programs that could impact the day-to-day life of incarcerated individuals for the better.
Institutional Prestige and Sports Publicity: The Effects of Sports Publicity on U.S. Higher Education Institutions’ Prestige
Colleges invest millions of dollars in sports programs; however, I would like to explore if the investment in these programs goes beyond sports revenue. The U.S News & World Report (USNWR) college ranking is based on a multidimensional methodology utilizing a weighted combination of nine broad indicators. Student retention, acceptance rate, and number of applicants are USNWR indicators which continue to fluctuate every year, but what if we took a closer look at external factors that could be affecting college ranking. Students attend a specific institution for a multitude of reasons, but USNWR college ranks play an important role as students select their preferred institutions. The purpose of this study is to explore the relationship between the quality of an institution’s sports program and institutional prestige. More specifically, we aim to find if there is a correlation between sports publicity and institutional prestige, and if a national championship win affects the USNWR college rankings. This quantitative study includes national championship winning institutions as a sports publicity indicator and seeks to determine the impact on a successful sports program and college ranking. Insights from this study can be used to inform higher education institutions as they evaluate the advantages of investing in a sports program and assist administrators in predicting an increase or decrease in factors that affect college rank.
Anuradha Venkatakrishnan, Katie Perry, Saba Qureshi, Neha Gogia
Morphogens are associated with a multitude of developmental processes, including organ patterning and the control of organ size. During development, axial patterning is crucial for the transition of a monolayer organ primordium into a three-dimensional organ. It involves the delineation of antero-posterior (AP), proximo-distal (PD) and dorso-ventral (DV) axes. During Drosophila eye development, DV axis formation is the first lineage restriction event and is tightly regulated by various signaling cues and transcription factors. Any errors in this process result in developmental birth defects. Previously, we identified defective proventriculus (dve) as a new dorsal eye fate selector or patterning gene. dve regulates eye development by regulating wg, a negative regulator of eye development. Apart from wg, Dpp signaling pathway is important for retinal differentiation. We hypothesize that dve, a transcription factor, regulates the Decapentaplegic (Dpp) signaling pathway, which is comparable to bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling in mammals, during eye development. Here, we explored the interaction between dve with Dpp signaling pathway. We will investigate the role of dve in the dorsal eye and whether dve requires Dpp signaling to specify eye and head fate to form an organ of balanced size and shape. We have utilized the GAL4-UAS system to modulate Dpp signaling in the dve domain. So far, we observe that downregulation of Dpp siggnaling in the dve domain (dve>brk) results in eye suppression while upregulating Dpp levels in dve domain (dve>dpp) results in an enlarged eye field. Additionally, we found that upregulating Dpp in the dve domain reduced Wg expression and conversely, downregulating Dpp in the dve domain resulted in ectopic induction of Wg. This study may have a significant bearing on growth, signaling and patterning defects and help in understanding the etiology behind genetic birth defects in the eye.
International Studies Senior Capstone Projects: Comparative Perspectives on Forced Disappearances, Irregular Migration, and Human Rights Education in El Salvador
Maureen Mae Barrett, Alexander J. Finney, Alexandria Noel Foos, Jayla Rayann Holzinger, Joel R. Howe, Sierra Electra Kochersperger, Elena C. Ramos, Teresa E. Schonder, Aryana A. Sutton, Jillian M. Tedeschi, Audrey Brooks Yost
Students in the senior capstone seminar worked in groups to produce reports for Counterpart International’s Rights and Dignity Project in El Salvador. Funded by USAID, the Rights and Dignity Project collaborates with local organization partners in El Salvador to protect human rights and promote justice, equity, and inclusion, especially for the most vulnerable groups in society. With the purpose of assisting the Project’s development of new programs, the students conducted research focused on three main areas: support for victims of forced disappearances in the past and present, promotion of human rights education in the school curriculum, and the link between human rights violations and irregular migration. After examining the historical and current context of these issues, the students explored how they have been addressed in other countries in Latin America and Asia. They then analyzed their findings and considered how lessons drawn from the comparative case studies can be applied to the Salvadoran context. In this presentation the students will discuss their main conclusions.
The developing eye of Drosophila is a well-established model for studying developmental genetic processes and growth regulation. The developmental genetic networks discovered in Drosophila are highly conserved in all animals including higher mammals. Axial patterning precedes differentiation in the Drosophila eye which begins from a ventral equivalent state. The dorsal fate is established by onset of expression of the GATA-family transcription factor Pannier (Pnr), and other dorsal-specific genes like Iroquois (Iro-C) family proteins. Our long-term goal is to understand the molecular basis of Dorsal-Ventral patterning and growth in the eye by interactions of the dorsal selector genes and growth regulatory genes. We recently identified dorsal proventriculus (dve) as a candidate for dorsal-ventral eye patterning. Preliminary data from our lab also suggests that Dve may interact with the Hippo growth regulatory pathway to control patterning and growth of the eye. We tested the interactions between Hippo pathway and dorsal-ventral patterning using the GAL4-UAS system. We tested if these pathways act independently to control eye patterning and growth or act via shared targets and regulatory interactions. In this context we wanted to address the effect of overexpressing Yki (the effector of the Hippo pathway) during larval development specifically in the dorsoventral domains of the imaginal discs using UAS-Gal4 system. We have studied effects in the wing and eye imaginal discs. Results will be discussed.
Charlotte Rose Kenneally
Listeria monocytogenes is a foodborne pathogen capable of surviving and growing under aerobic and anaerobic conditions, with anaerobically grown Listeria exhibiting a compromised growth. Under anaerobic conditions, Listeria often encounters fermentation acid, propionate. The focus of this research project is to determine the effects of propionate on Listeria susceptibility to host-derived antimicrobial enzyme, lysozyme. Moreover, because glycerol is a key carbon source for Listeria in a host cell, the impact of glycerol on lysozyme susceptibility will also be determined. Listeria is grown aerobically or anaerobically, with or without the addition of propionate, and then normalized by optical density values. Bacteria are harvested by centrifugation and resuspended in a prepared stock solution of lysozyme. Live bacteria are quantified by plating for colony forming units at 0, 1, and 4 hours post lysozyme exposure to determine lysozyme susceptibility. These results provide insight into how anaerobic adaptation alters Listeria fitness during infections.
Grazia Maria DiPierro
A person’s political views are largely dependent on who they are, meaning a person’s identities may inform their political attitudes. The extent to which a person is made aware of an identity may influence how they view certain issues. For example, a White woman may view the same issue in two different ways depending on whether her racial or gender identity is activated. It is hypothesized that when participants are made aware of their racial identity, White participants will hold more conservative views, while non-White participants will hold more liberal views. Additionally, when made aware of a gender identity, White women may view issues the same way as non-White women (i.e., more liberally). The participants were randomly assigned to one of three conditions to make a racial, gender, or neutral identity salient. Participants completed the Collective Self-Esteem Scale (Luhtanen & Crocker, 1992) to measure their self-esteem in a social group they belong to. This was followed by questions relating to political attitudes and measures of internalized sexism. Internalized sexism is being examined to determine the role it may play in political attitudes, specifically when activated with a gender identity.
Sadie Mae Salamone
Glioblastoma Multiforme (GBM) is an extremely aggressive type of brain cancer with no ultimate cure and a high mortality rate. These tumors form and metastasize quickly, making this specific type of cancer difficult to treat and fatal for almost all who receive this diagnosis. This study will explore the growth patterns of GBM tumors using the model organism of Drosophila melanogaster, which is the common fruit fly. A genetic cross between two genotypically different flies is used to produce the GBM tumor. These genotypes represent mutations in genes commonly found mutated in human patients, thus findings from this work may be relevant to understanding early changes in glial cells in human glia as well. The findings from this study will allow for a better understanding of the growth patterns of GBM tumors and hopefully aid in finding a treatment method for this aggressive type of cancer. The purpose of this poster is to discuss the dangers of GBM, discuss the fruit fly as a model organism, describe completed and planned steps of this investigation and explore the benefits and possible ramifications that may arise in this study.
Investigating the role of protein environment on rare-earth metal binding via molecular dynamics simulations
Darcy N. Setter
This project looks into the Lanmodulin protein (LanM) that binds selectively to rare-earth metals in specific binding sites. We look into why this protein is selective to the rare-earth metals if it is depending on the protein environment or the makeup of the individual binding loops in the protein. We approached this question by modifying similar ion binding proteins found in a BLAST search, and replacing the binding sites with the loops found in the LanM protein. After doing so we used molecular dynamic simulations to observe the binding in the modified proteins.
Investigation of the preference of berry type by ground feeders when given abundances of both native (Common Hackberry) and invasive (Amur honeysuckle) berries
Emily Marie Berkshire, Charles M. Brockman
Amur honeysuckle is beginning to take over the natural habitats of Dayton, Ohio as well as the rest of the northeast. Due to its early bloom, duration during fall and early winter, and its durability, it has begun to push out other native flora. We wanted to investigate if this change in common flora had any effect on what native fauna were consuming. We set up an experiment in which the berries of the Common Hackberry tree as well as berries of the invasive Amur Honeysuckle were provided to ground feeders in abundance. Through conducting three trials, each including variable canopy coverage sites, we were able to conclude that ground feeders prefer the berries of the Common Hackberry tree. These results may be due to co-evolution along with nutritional differences between the berries.
Investigation of whether known gene expression-regulating genetic switches possess pleiotropic activities
Katherine A. Kohnen
Animals build, organize, and maintain a diversity of cell types throughout development and adulthood. Cellular diversity results from the regulated expression of genes, where most genes are “pleiotropic” with expression occurring in several cell types and/or developmental stages. Cell type and developmental stage-specific patterns of expression are switched on by cis-regulatory element (CRE) DNA sequences. In contrast to genes, CREs are generally assumed to function in a modular non-pleiotropic manner. Each CRE activates expression in one cellular context, and gene pleiotropy arises from their regulation by multiple modular CREs. This assumption shapes the way CREs are thought to impact development, evolution, and genetic disease. However, the generality of CRE modularity has not been satisfactorily demonstrated, as it is difficult to test for CRE activity or inactivity in all cell types and developmental stages. The central goal of my thesis research was to explore whether some well-studied CREs possess pleiotropic gene expression-regulating activities. Of high interest was the CRE known as the t_MSE that regulates male-specific expression of the Drosophila melanogaster tan gene as a part of a program to develop melanic cuticle plates on the posterior abdomen of this fruit fly species. In this thesis, I give an account of my studies, which did not find a pleiotropic activity for the t_MSE and which shares a cautionary tale of how experiments studying CRE function can provide false positive results. In the future, studies should explore additional CREs for pleiotropic activates to better gauge whether CRE pleiotropy is rare or common. The outcomes will have broad implications in biology, notably on the roles of CREs in development, evolution, and genetic disease.
Matthew Joseph Green
This presentation will highlight the 2022 National Collegiate Sport Sales Championship hosted by the Atlanta Hawks. It will cover how you can get involved next year. Why it is only for graduating senior in Sport Management. How long is the the trip to the preparation involved by the four individuals and the coach. Most important the benefits of attending this competition. This results of this presentation is to show the outcome of pushing yourself to take the next step towards a career in sports sales.
Rohullah Arya, Sayed Besmellah Ehsani, Mohammad Ehsan Naikkhua
Although we are living in the modern-day, global warming and poverty are the main challenges in this world. In this research project, we are targeting to provide a sustainable energy source and income for a rural community in Afghanistan. This will not only provide them with a clean energy source but will also support them financially. In this project, the solar mini-grid system will provide 6 hours of electricity for the community as well as the bitcoin miners installed on the farm. Basically, solar PV systems generate electricity during the daytime and feed it to the miners and battery storage. During the nighttime, the stored energy feed community electricity demand (lighting, TV, and freezer) for 6 hours, and the bitcoin miners load. Interestingly, miners earn money for this community freely by sun energy. Based on our estimation, the payback for this project is around 8 years which is a very interesting period.
Emma Katherine Collett, Margaret Elise Ferrara, Nicholas Joseph Ferritto, Rianna Corrinn Greene, Sofia Andrea Hernandez
Diabetes is very prevalent in the United States. According to the CDC, 37.3 million people have diabetes in the US and it is predicted to get worse within the next decade. Diabetes mellitus is a common metabolic disorder defined by hyperglycemia, which results in adverse effects in chronic carbohydrate, fat, and protein dysfunctions. Many studies have supported that a change in diet is a way to help improve those dysfunctions and diabetic markers. The purpose of this study is to determine if there is a correlation between a plant based diet and improving diabetic conditions. This will be determined through a secondary analysis of pre-existing diabetic prevalence data and dietary screening questionnaires. The participants to be recruited for the study will be men and women from the United States of America between the years of 2009 and 2010, which were taken from pre-existing diabetic prevalence data and dietary screener questionnaires. Data collection will occur between March 28th and April 4th, 2022. Results are forthcoming.
Shaun D. Huguley
Roth individual retirement accounts (IRAs) are funded with post tax dollars and Traditional IRAs are funded with pre-tax dollars. Traditional IRAs are taxed when the money is withdrawn. It has been said that if taxes are higher in the future, then it is better to use Roth IRAs, but such analysis does not take into consideration that if income is lower than certain thresholds, a taxpayer can receive credits. We use simulations to see if a Roth IRA is always better when taxes are higher in the future.
Nicholas Wade Stout
Classical geometry bases its foundation on five postulates from Euclid. However, mathematicians were always troubled by Euclid's fifth postulate, as it seemed that it should be derivable from the other four, and many made attempts to prove it using the other four postulates. Their efforts proved in vain, as it was later shown that other geometries exist which do not satisfy Euclid's fifth postulate. One of these, which will be the focus of this presentation, is hyperbolic geometry. We will examine two common models for the hyperbolic plane: the disk model and the upper half-plane model, with a particular emphasis on the isometries of the hyperbolic plane. Time permitting, we will also discuss tilings of the hyperbolic plane.